1.  http://www.accessExcellence.org/AB/BC/1900-1953.html

2.  http://sumagazine.syr.edu/summer01/features/brightideas/ and M. Menotti-Raymond et al., "Pet cat    
hair implicates murder suspect," Nature, 386(774), 1997.  

3.  
http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/elsi/forensics.shtml

4.  http://www.innocenceproject.org

5.  http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0345406400/qid=1099499480/sr=8-5/ref= pd_csp_5/103-
4253549-7236611?v=glance&s=books&n=507846

6.  http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/elsi/forensics.shtml#4

7.  Ryder et al., ECOLOGY:DNA Banks for Endangered Animal Species, Science 2000 288: 275-277

8.  Steve Bunk, “Forensics Fights Crimes Against Wildlife,” The Scientist 14(7):24,  Apr. 3, 2000  

9.  
http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/elsi/forensics.shtml

10.  Julianna Kettlewell, “Junk” Throws Up Precious Secret,” BBC Online,
http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/3703935.stm

11.  Anne E. Peaston, Alexei V. Evsikov, Joel H. Graber, Wilhelmine N. de Vries, Andrea E. Holbrook,
Davor Solter, and Barbara B. Knowles: "Retrotransposons Regulate Host Genes in Mouse
Oocytes and Preimplantation Embryos,”Developmental Cell, 7(4), pages 597–606, October 2004.  

12.  
http://science.howstuffworks.com/dna-evidence2.htm

13.  J. W. Schumm, Promega Corporation, “New Approaches to DNA Fingerprint Analysis,” Notes
Magazine, 58 1996, p. 12.

14.  Alan J. Redd et al, “Forensic value of 14 novel STRs on the human Y-chromosome,” Forensic
Science International, 3460 (2002), pp 1 – 15.

15.  A good reference on forensic science use of DNA is John Butler’s book, Forensic DNA Typing,
available through Amazon.com at
http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/012147951X/anilaggrawasi-20/103-4253549-7236611.

16.  If the STR markers used for genealogical analysis were used to identify someone who committed a
crime, about 580 markers would have to match to have a 90% probability that the person who left
the DNA sample at the scene of a crime shared a MRCA with the suspect within 1 generation. This
is about ten times the number of markers that are presently known. If the probability were lowered
to 50%, roughly 380 markers would be required.   

17.  A recent discovery has shown that it is possible, although very rare, to inherit at least a fraction of
one's mtDNA from the mother.   See
http://www.newscientist.com/news/news.jsp?id=ns99992716,
or New England Journal of Medicine 347, p. 576.

18.  
http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0393323145/103-8588707-5017455?v=glance

19.  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DNA

20.  E. Heyer, J. Puymirat, P. Dieltjes, E. Bakker, P. de Knijff, "Estimating Y chromosome specific
microsatellite mutation frequencies using deep rooting pedigrees," Hum Mol Denet 6 (1997) 799-
803, also M. Kayser, L. Roewer, M. Hedman, L. Henke, J. Henke, S. Brauer, C. Kruger, M.
Krawczak, M. Nagy, T. Dobosz, R. Szibor, P. de Knijff, M. Stoneking, A. Sajantila, "Characteristics
and frequency of germline mutations at microsatellites from the human Y chromosome revealed by
direct observation in father/son pairs," American Journal of Human Genetics 66 (2000) 1580-1588,
also G. Cooper, N. J. Burroughs, D. A. Rand, D. C. Rubinsztein, W. Amos, "Markov Chain Monte
Carlo analysis of human Y-chromosome microsatellites provides evidence of biased mutation,"
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 96, 11916-11921, (1999).

21.  B. Myhre Dupuy, M. Stenersen, A. G. Flones, B. Olaisen, "Mutations at Y-STR Loci: a study of
1767 Father-Son Pairs of Norwegian Origin," Proc. of the Third International Y-Users Workshop, Y-
chromosome haplotype database(s): state of the art and future developments, November 7-9, 2002,
Porto, Portugal.

22.  
http://www.dnaheritage.com/glossary.asp

23.  See the Y-STR Database description at http://www.ystr.org

24.  Y-STR Profiles in DNA, March 2003,
http://www.promega.com/catalog/country_select.asp?/profiles/issues.html&ckt=2

25.  http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/faq/snps.shtml

26.  The Y Chromosome Consortium , “A Nomenclature System for the Tree of Human Y-Chromosomal
Binary Haplogroups,” 12(2), 339-348, February 2002.  

27.  
http://www.kerchner.com/haplogroups-ydna.htm with permission from Family Tree DNA.

28.  
http://home.comcast.net/~whitathey/predictorinstr.htm

29.  Cann, R.L., Stoneking, M., and Wilson, A. C., “Mitochondrial DNA and human evolution,” Nature,
1987 Jan 1-7;325(6099):31-6; and Stoneking, M., Mitochondrial DNA and human evolution,” J
Bioenerg Biomembr., Jun; 26(3):251-9, 1994.

30.  
http://www.genomenewsnetwork.org/articles/04_02/mito_dna.shtml

31.  See http://www.newscientist.com/news/news.jsp?id=ns99992716 or New England Journal of
Medicine, 347, p576 for a rare exception.  

32.  Bryan Sykes, The Seven Daughters of Eve. Also
http://www.oxfordancestors.com/your-maternal.html and
http://www.roperld. com/mtDNAdaughters.htm#haplogroups

33.  Used with the permission of Bennett Greenspan, Family Tree DNA.

34.  J. F. O’Connell, “Genetics, archeology, and Holocene hunter-gathers,” Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A,
September 14; 96 (19): 10562– 10563, 1999

35.  J. F. O’Connell, “Genetics, archeology, and Holocene hunter-gathers,” Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A,
September 14; 96 (19): 10562– 10563, 1999.

36.  Annette Gordon-Reed, Thomas Jefferson and Sally Hemmings: An American Controversy,
University of  Virginia Press,   Charlottesville, 1998) as discussed in Thomas H. Roderick, “The Y-
Chromosome in Genealogical Research: ‘From Their Ys a Father Knows His Own Son’", National
Genealogical Society Quarterly 88 (June 2000), p. 122-143

37.  E. A. Foster et al, :Jefferson Fathered Slave’s Last Child,” Nature 396 (5 November) 1998:27-28.

38.  Thomas H. Roderick, “The Y-Chromosome in Genealogical Research: ‘From Their Ys a Father
Knows His Own Son’, National Genealogical Society Quarterly 88 (June 2000), p. 122-143.

39.  
http://www.worldfamilies.net

40.  http://www.familytreedna.com/surname_join.asp?code=F86325&special=True

41.  http://www.bartonsite.org/ie_index.html

42.  http://www.duerinck.com/privacy.html

43.  Descendants of Bryan Fitzpatrick, Lord and First Baron of Upper Ossory, S. Zalewski and R.
Fitzpatrick, 2002.

44.  
http://indigo.ie/~wildgees/lally.htm

45.  http://www.breckinridge.com/Man_of_Fr.htm

46.  http://genealogy.about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?site=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.rootsweb.com%2F%
7Ecanqc%2Fangloabc.htm

47.  Marion L. Smith, “American Names/Declaring Independence,”
www.uscis.gov/graphics/aboutus/ history/articles/NameEssay.html

48.  Marian L. Smith, op cit.

49.  Mark Haacke, private communication.

50.  
http://web.staffs.ac.uk/schools/humanities_and_soc_sciences/census/illegit.htm

51.  http://www.encyclopedia.com/html/A/Armada-S1.asp, as taken from G. Mattingly, The Armada
(1959); A. McKee, From Merciless Invaders (1964); W. Graham, The Spanish Armadas (1972).

52.  
http://www.duerinck.com/dnalabs.html

53.  http://www.relativegenetics.com.  Click on "About Relative Genetics".

54.  
http://www.smgf.org

55.  See for example, Alan J. Redd et al, “Forensic value of 14 novel STRs on the human Y-
chromosome,” Forensic Science International, 3460 (2002), pp 1–15.

56.  Bennett Greenspan, Family Tree DNA, private communication.

57.  
http://ycc.biosci.arizona.edu/nomenclature_system/fig1.html

58.  http://www.ohiou.edu/phylocode/art9.html and http://www.miketaylor.org.uk/dino/faq/s-class/phyletic/

59.  http://ycc.biosci.arizona.edu/nomenclature_system/results.html

60.  The Y Chromosome Consortium , “A Nomenclature System for the Tree of Human Y-Chromosomal
Binary Haplogroups,” 12(2), 339-348, February 2002.

61.  
http://www.familytreedna.com/haplotree.html ; or
http://ycc.biosci.arizona.edu/nomenclature_system/fig1.html

62.  S. Siguraordottir, Agnar Helgason, Jeffrey R. Gulcher, Kari Stefansson, Peter Donnelly, “The
Mutation Rate in the Human mtDNA Control Region,” Am. J. Hum. Genet., 66:1599-1609, 2000.

63.  Anderson S., A. T. Bankier, B. G. Barrell, et al. (14 co-authors), “Sequence and organisation of the
human mitochondrial genome,” Nature, 290:457-465, 1981.

64.  
http://www.oxfordancestors.com/glossary.html

65.  Andrews R. M., I. Kubacka, P. F. Chinnery, R. N. Lightowlers, D. M. Turnbull, N. Howell,
“Reanalysis and revision of the Cambridge reference sequence for human mitochondrial DNA,”
Nat. Genet., 23:147, 1999.  

66.  Bennett Greenspan, Family Tree DNA, private communication.

67.  A. Achilli et al, "The Molecular Dissection of mtDNA Haplogroup N Confirms that the Franco-
Cantabrian Refuge Was a Major Source for the European Gene Pool," Am. J. Hum. Genet., 75,
910-918, 2004.

68.  Information in Tables 8, 9, 10, and 11 and information included in the accompanying discussion are
used with the permission of L. David Roper,
http://www.roperld.com/mtDNA.htm.

69.  
http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/AJHG/journal/issues/v68n6/002593/fg2.h.gif. Figure 2 from Finnila,
S., Lehtonen, M.S., Majamaa, K., Phylogenetic Network for European mtDNA,” Amer. J. of
Human Genetics, 68: 1475-1484 (2001).

70.  B. Walsh, “Estimating the Time to the Most Recent Common Ancestor for the Y chromosome or
Mitochondrial DNA for a Pair of Individuals” , Genetics, 158: 897–912 (June 2001).  

71.  M. Tremblay and Helene Vesina, "New Estimates of Intergenerational Time Intervals for the
Calculation of And and Origins of Mutations," Am. J. Hum. Genet., 66: 651-658, 2000.

72.  Hudson  , R. R., “Gene genealogies and the coalescence process,”   Oxford  Surveys in Evolutionary
Biology, D. J. Futuyama and J. Antonovics, eds., Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. 1–44.

73.  B. Walsh, “Estimating the Time to the Most Recent Common Ancestor for the Y chromosome or
Mitochondrial DNA for a Pair of Individuals,” Genetics, 158: 897–912 (June 2001).

74.  If this link does not work, an alternate route to the site is to go to
http://www.genealogy.com, click on
My Community on the banner, click on F, click on FI, click on FIT, then search for “DNA” or
“Colleen” on the page.

75.  
http://www.bartondna.info

76.  http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0716523663/qid=1099517562/sr=8-
1/ref=sr_8_xs_ap_i1_xgl14/ 103-4253549-7236611?v=glance&s=books&n=507846

77.  http://www.rootsweb.com/~irlkik/history/ossory.htm

78.  http://www.fluxus-engineering.com/sharenet.htm

79.  H.-J. Baldelt, P. Forster, A. Röhl, “Median Joining Networks for Inferring Intraspecific
Phylogenies,” Mol. Biol. Evol,. 16(1): 37-48 (1999).

80.  H.-J. Baldelt, P. Forster, B. C. Sykes, and M. B. Richards, “Mitochondrial Portraits of Human
Populations Using Median Networks,” Genetics, 141: 743-753 (October 1995).

81.  
http://www.kerchner.com/haplogroups-ydna.htm

82.  http://www.newscientist.com/news/news.jsp?id=ns99992716

83.  While it is true that Trembly et al, “New Estimates of Intergenerational Time Intervals for the
Calculation of Age and Origins of Mutation,” Am. J. Hum. Genet., 66:651-658 (2000) found that a
generation over the last few centuries is about 30 years, the average lifespan of males for the last
few thousand years was probably much shorter.  

84.  Irish Pedigrees or the Origin and Stem of the Irish Nation by John O'Hart.
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