The fair ended with the city in shock, as popular mayor Carter Harrison, Sr. was
assassinated two days before the fair's closing. Closing ceremonies were canceled in
favor of a public memorial service. Jackson Park was returned to its status as a public
park, in much better shape than its original swampy form. The lagoon was reshaped to
give it a more natural appearance, except for the straight-line northern end where it still
laps up against the steps on the south side of the Palace of Fine Arts/Museum of
Science & Industry building. The Midway Plaisance, a park-like boulevard which
extends west from Jackson Park, once formed the southern boundary of the University
of Chicago, which was being built as the fair was closing. (The university has since
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The World's Columbian Exposition (also called
The Chicago World's Fair), a World's Fair,
was held in Chicago in 1893, to celebrate the
400th anniversary of Christopher Columbus's
arrival in the New World. Chicago bested New
York City, Washington, D.C. and St. Louis,
Missouri, for the honor of hosting the fair. The
fair had a profound effect on architecture, the
arts, Chicago's self-image, and American
industrial optimism.

The exposition covered more than 600 acres
(2.4 km2), featuring nearly 200 new buildings
of classical architecture, canals and lagoons,
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Answer to Quiz #204 - April 5, 2009
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Quiz #204 Results
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1.  When and where did this event take place?
2.  How many countries participated?
3.  Name three "firsts" that occurred at the event.
Submitted by Gerald Vanlandingham

Chicago World's Fair
1.  World's Columbian Exhibition, IL
2. Forty-Six
3.  Lots of firsts including the Ferris Wheel, Cracker Jacks, Cream of Wheat,
Shredded Wheat, Juicy Fruit Gum, Aunt Jemima Pancake Mix, AC electricity
Congratulations to Our Winners

Rick MacKinney and his Quiz Angel Jina "see you at the fair" Yi

Carole Cropley                Joshua Kreitzer
Sharon Martin                Brian Kemp
John Chulick                Betty Chambers
Jeanne Daily                Marilyn Hamill
Dennis Brann                Charlie Wayne
Caroline Pointer                Dawn Colket
Carolyn Cornelius                Sandra MacConathy
Don Draper                Norm Smith
Dan Schlesinger                Phyllis Barattia
Venita Wilson                Mary Osmar
Rex Cornelius                Margaret Bonar
Stan Read                Clinton L. Smith
Bill Utterback                Margaret Waterman
Evan Hindman                Dale Niesen
Karen Kay Bunting                Rick Roof
Gary Sterne                Mike Swierczewski
Milene Rawlinson                Mike Dalton
Joe Ruffner                Elaine C. Hebert
Angie McLaughlin                Larry Slavens
Carol Darrow                Teresa Yu
Carl Blessing                Jocelyn Thayer
Dawn Carlile                Karen Petrus
Diane Burkett                Judy Pfaff
Wayne Douglas                Stacy Aannestad                Chirstine Bucko
Robert Edward McKenna, QPL
The Chicago's World Fair
aka The World's Columbian Exhibition
The Columbian
Exposition half dollar
commemorative coin,
commonly referred to as
the Columbian half dollar,
was minted for the
Columbian Exposition
held between 1892 to
1893. It honors the 400th
anniversary of Columbus'
discovery of America.
Comments from Our Readers
It was the first time a mayor was assassinated during a World's Fair, Carter Harrison,
Dawn Colket

(N. B. That was the first time for Carter Harrison, too.)

recognized this instantly. I sell donated books on the internet to benefit our local branch
library, and the book we have sold the most copies of is Erik Larson's popular history,
The Devil in the White City, which dovetails the story of this Exposition with that of
Dr. H.H. Holmes.  Dr. Holmes was one of our first serial killers and he used the
Exposition to lure some of his victims.                                         
Carolyn Cornelius

Great quiz!  At first I thought it might be some European city, but the American bunting
made me realize that it was probably in the US.  I thought it might be an exposition,
then saw the Illinois flag on the Illinois Building.                                 
Evan Hindman

On a personal note my favorite was always Tesla's electric house.              
Rick Roof

Interesting quiz.  This is a photo of the Chicago Worlds Fair of 1893.  When I figured it
out and went to Wikipedia to read their article, this identical photo was on their page.
Milene Rawlinson
There is quite a listing of world fairs. Portland, Oregon: 1905 Lewis & Clark Exposition
-- the Forestry Building survived until a 1964 Fire destroyed it.  Seattle, Washington --
1962 Seattle Exposition -- the Space Needle is the most prominent structure surviving. I
attended that one. Mike Dalton                                                             
Mike Dalton

Pretty impressive. Again, this quiz provides me with a history I'm surprised to not
know. I just spent this weekend working on Navy Pier, which features an enormous
Ferris wheel, and I actually wondered why it was chosen as the centerpiece of the
lakefront park. Had no idea of its significance.                                        
Joe Ruffner

Ferris Wheel was invented by George Washington Gale Ferris Jr who was born in
Galesburg IL in 1859. I grew up about an hour from Galesburg.  There were lots of
firsts but these were the ones on the list I found that caught my eye. Though it is also
interesting to note that an exotic dancer named "Little Egypt" introduced America to the
"hootchy-kootchy"!!Questions two and three gave it away so I new right away it was a
World's Fair. Blowing up the photo and seeing the flag gave away the location.
Angie McLaughlin
Wikipedia has quite a list, but as food is near and dear to my heart, I'll go with Cracker
Jack, Quaker Oats, and Aunt Jemima Pancake Mix                             
Larry Slavens

I enjoyed the research; another excellent quiz to keep the brain cells pink.
Jocelyn Thayer
The list of the "firsts" was interesting too. I knew about the Ferris wheel and a few of
the others but wouldn't have been able to recall them. I was especially taken by Milton
Hershey buying chocolate equipment there. I live about an hour or so away from
Hershey, PA, and know a little history of the company and the man but never heard that

I get mad at myself when I don't think to look at things like the flags to help me solve
it. Grrr.

I agree [with you that] today's new products would be electronic. On the way to work
we listen to a radio station that has a "Question of the Day" every morning. Today's
question was : These were introduced in the 70's...became hugely popular in the 80's...
but if you are still using yours, people may be laughing at you. (The answer is relevant
to our discussion and at [the bottom of the list of winners].
Charlie Wayne
Actually, I sort of wonder about the latest gadgets at the fair that didn’t become
John Chulick

This fair had exhibitors from Donegal Ireland. The actually came from the area of my
husbands ancestors. Knitwear from the Gweedore area of Donegal this all came from a
cottage industry. This was also going through a time of extreme unrest but the
homeworkers continued.  The also constructed a small so called working village as part
of the exhibit.                                                             
                    Margaret Bonar
Special Comment from Don Draper
“The Mammoth Cheese”
This quiz has a
connection to my
family’s genealogy. My
great grandfather,
Charles Edward Harris
went to the 1893 World’
s Fair with a
“Mammoth Cheese”
made in Perth, Lanark
Co. - near Ottawa,
Ontario. Charles and his
Click here to
read more.
father, Elisha Gustavus were part owners
of a cheese factory near the village of
Newry, Ontario. The business was
destroyed by fire in 1882 and Charles had
taken a job with the CPR railway by 1893.
He was not directly involved in making the
Mammoth Cheese but likely knew the men
involved. Certainly he remained interested
in the business. The 1893 cheese was not a
“first”. In 1866, the James Harris cheese
factory in Ingersoll, Ontario, made a giant
cheese, to promote the industry, and it was
taken to the New York State Fair and then
to England. Ingersoll has a museum
devoted to the history of cheese making.
This practice of forming big cheeses
continues to more recent times where the
aspiration may be to be a “big cheese” - in
the Guinness Book of Records. The we!
bsites below tell how the Mammoth Cheese
was a hit at the Chicago Fair. Much
interest was created when it broke through
the second floor exhibit area and had to be
transferred to a more stable concrete base
in the Agri. Bldg.                   
Don Draper


In a previous quiz where we featured a
cabinet card of two Scottish children from
Ingersoll, Ontario, we mentioned a poet
named James McIntyre, who was a
furniture salesman and also held the title
The Worst Poet in the World.  His claim to
fame was his epic poem "Ode to a
Mammoth Cheese".  I wonder if it was the
same cheese.  See
html                                                         Colleen
How Norm Solved the Puzzle
This was an interesting photo quiz to solve.  By examining
the photo, it was apparent that the picture was taken around
the turn of the century.  My initial thought was that it was a
state fair but then seeing the words Illinois and California
(flag and building respectively) indicated that this was more
than a state fair.  The second question asking for the number
of countries participating actually was a clue.  Once I
realized that several countries were represented, I then
started looking for (Googled) for World’s Fairs around the
turn of the century.  I followed up on the links to the
Chicago World’s Fair and noted buildings and a layout
similar to that shown in this photo.               
Norm Smith

The Columbian Exposition held at Chicago in 1893.
Forty-six nations participated in the event,
Celebrating the landing of Columbus in the New World.
Attendance recorded that 716,881 persons went.

There were many " firsts" introduced at the Exposition,
The Ferris Wheel, Cracker Jack, and Juicy Fruit gum,
and the new exotic dance of the Hootcy-Kootchy,               
performed by Little Egypt to the beat of a drum.

Robert Edward McKenna
Quiz Poet Laureate
This is my souvenir of the 1893
World's Columbian Exposition, a
souvenir bib.  The script is
yellow and reads "Maggie Jane
McKinley, Worlds Fair 1893"  It
was embroidered by machine in
a chain stitch, probably in the
Women's Building.  It has an
attached ivory ring with a little
pocket for a pacifier. I bought
this--it is not a family heirloom.

Marilyn Hamill
Some Firsts at the Fair
· Cracker Jack
· Congress of Mathematicians (later International Congress
of Mathematicians)
· Elongated coins
· Ferris wheel
· Juicy Fruit gum
· Quaker Oats
· Cream of Wheat
· Shredded Wheat
· Aunt Jemima pancake mix
· The hamburger was introduced to the United States
· Milton Hershey bought a European exhibitor's chocolate
manufacturing equipment and added chocolate products to
his caramel manufacturing business.
· The United States Post Office Department produced its
first picture postcards and commemorative stamp set.
· United States Mint offered its first commemorative coins:
a quarter and half dollar.
· Contribution to Chicago's nickname, the "Windy City".
Some argue that Charles Anderson Dana of the New York
Sun coined the term related to the hype of the city's
promoters. Other evidence, however, suggests the term
was used as early as 1881 in relation to either Chicago's
"windbag" politicians or its Weather.
· Scott Joplin's performance at the exposition introduced
ragtime to new audiences.  
· Violinist Joseph Douglass achieved wide recognition after
his performance there and became the first
African-American violinist to conduct a transcontinental
tour and the first to tour as a concert violinist.
· The first Indonesian music performance in the United
States was at the exposition
· A group of hula dancers led to increased awareness of
Hawaiian music among Americans throughout the country.
· Stoughton Musical Society, the oldest choral society in
the United States, presented the first concerts of early
American music at the exposition.
· The first Eisteddfod (a Welsh choral competition with a
history spanning many centuries) held outside of Wales was
held in Chicago at the exposition.
Herman Webster Mudgett (May 16, 1860 – May 7, 1896),
better known under the alias of Dr. Henry Howard Holmes,
was an American serial killer. Holmes opened a hotel in
Chicago for the 1893 World's Fair. While he confessed to
27 murders, of which nine were confirmed, his true body
count is likely significantly higher.

The case was notorious in its time and received wide
publicity via a series of articles in William Randolph Hearst's
newspapers. Interest in Holmes' crimes was revived in
2003 by Erik Larson's
The Devil in the White City, a best-
selling non-fiction book that juxtaposed an account of the
planning and staging of the World's Fair with Holmes'
story. In 2004, filmmaker John Borowski released the first
documentary film focusing on the entire life of the torture
doctor, entitled
H. H. Holmes:
Place of Fine Arts
now the Museum of Science and Industry
and people and cultures from around the world. Over 27 million people (equivalent to
about half the U.S. population) attended the exposition during its six-month run. Its
scale and grandeur far exceeded the other world fairs, and it became a symbol of the
emerging American Exceptionalism, much in the same way that the Great Exhibition
became a symbol of the Victorian era United Kingdom.

Dedication ceremonies for the fair were held on October 21, 1892, but the fairgrounds
were not actually opened to the public until May 1, 1893. The fair continued until
October 30, 1893. In addition to recognizing the 400th anniversary of the discovery of
the New World, the fair also served to show the world that Chicago had risen from the
ashes of the Great Chicago Fire, which had destroyed much of the city in 1871. On
October 9, 1893, the day designated as Chicago Day, the fair set a record for outdoor
event attendance, drawing 716,881 persons to the fair.

Forty-six nations participated in the fair, including Haiti, which selected Frederick
Douglass to be its delegate[1]. The Exposition drew nearly 26 million visitors. It left a
remembered vision that inspired the Emerald City of L. Frank Baum's Land of Oz and
Walt Disney's theme parks. Disney's father Elias had been a construction worker on
some of the buildings at the fair.

As detailed in Erik Larson's popular history The Devil in the White City, extraordinary
effort was required to accomplish the
exposition, and much of it was unfinished
on opening day. The famous Ferris wheel,
which proved to be a major attendance draw
and helped save the fair from bankruptcy,
was not finished until June, because of
waffling by the board of directors the
previous year on whether to build it.
Frequent debates and disagreements among
the developers of the fair added many
delays. The spurning of Buffalo Bill's Wild
West Show proved a serious financial
mistake. Buffalo Bill set up his highly
popular show next door to the fair and
brought in a great deal of revenue that he did
not have to share with the developers.
Nonetheless, construction and operation of
the fair proved to be a windfall for Chicago
workers during the serious economic
recession that was sweeping the country.
1893 Souvenir Poster
Chicago World's Fair
developed south of the Midway.)

Of the more than 200 buildings erected for the fair, the only two
which still stand in place are the Palace of Fine Arts and the
World's Congress Auxiliary Building. From the time the fair
closed until 1920, the Palace of Fine Arts housed the Field
Columbian Museum (now the relocated Field Museum of Natural
History). In 1933 the building re-opened as the Museum of
Science and Industry. The cost of construction of the World's
Congress Auxiliary Building was shared with the Art Institute of
Chicago, which moved into the building (the museum's current
home) after the close of the fair.
Assassinated Mayor
Carter Harrison
To read bio, click
Clues to Identifying the Occasion and Location of the Photo
Canadian Flag
Japanese Flag
Illinois State Flag
"California" on face of building
The most prominent flag is that of the State of Illinois.  There are flags of other
countries, so it has be to an international event, possibly hosted by the State of
Answer to Charlie Wayne's riddle:  calculator watches.
America's First Serial Killer and a book entitled The Strange Case of Dr. H.H. Holmes,
which contains Holmes' Own Story and The Holmes-Pitezel Case, as well as other
material dating from the period of the case. In addition, Mudgett's story has been told in
a biography of his life by Harold Schechter entitled
Depraved: The Definitive True
Story of H.H. Holmes, Whose Grotesque Crimes Shattered Turn-of-the-Century Chicago

While in Chicago, Holmes came across Dr. E.S. Holton's drugstore. It was located at
the corner of Wallace and 63rd Street, in the neighborhood of Englewood. Holton was
suffering from cancer while his wife minded the store. Through his charm, Holmes got
a job there and then manipulated her into letting him purchase the store. The agreement
was that she could still live in the upstairs apartment even after Holton died. Once
Holton died, Holmes murdered Mrs. Holton and told people she was visiting relatives in
California. As people started asking questions as to when she would be coming back,
Read NY Times Review of The Devil in
the White City
Herman Webster Mudgett, America's First Serial Killer
he elaborated the lie and told them she loved it so much in
California that she decided to live there.

Holmes purchased a lot across from the drugstore, where
he built his three-story, block-long "Castle"—as it was
dubbed by those in the neighborhood. It was opened as a
hotel for the World's Columbian Exposition in 1893, with
part of the structure used as commercial space. The
ground floor of the Castle contained, aside from Holmes'
own relocated drugstore, various shops (one a jeweler,
for example), while the upper two floors contained his
personal office as well as a maze of over one hundred
windowless rooms with doorways that would open to
brick walls, oddly angled hallways, stairways to nowhere,
doors that could only be opened from the outside, and a host of other strange and
labyrinthine constructions. Holmes had repeatedly changed builders during the initial
construction of the Castle to ensure that only he fully understood the design of the
house he had created, thereby decreasing the chances of any of them reporting it to the

Over a period of three years, Holmes selected female victims from among his
employees (many of whom were required as a condition of employment to take out life
insurance policies for which Holmes would pay the premiums but also be the
beneficiary), lovers and hotel guests, and would torture and kill them. Some were
locked in soundproof bedrooms fitted with gas lines that permitted him to asphyxiate
them at any time. Some victims were locked in a huge bank vault near his office; he sat
and listened as they screamed, panicked and eventually suffocated. The victims' bodies
went by a secret chute to the basement, where some were meticulously dissected,
stripped of flesh, crafted into skeleton models, and then sold to medical schools.
Holmes also cremated some of the bodies or placed them in lime pits for destruction.
Holmes had two giant furnaces as well as pits of acid, bottles of various poisons, and
even a stretching rack, allegedly in order to create a race of giants. Through the
connections he had gained in medical school, he was able to sell skeletons and organs
with little difficulty. Holmes picked one of the most remote rooms in the Castle to
perform hundreds of illegal abortions. Some of his patients died as a result of his
abortion procedure, and their corpses were also processed and the skeletons sold.