Jews were banned from Budapest in the 18th century
so they established a Jewish quarter just outside the
old city boundary.
The Jews built their main synagogue in a residential
area. Theodore Herzl, founder of modern Zionism
was born in one of the buildings. This stunning
temple was constructed between 1844-59 according
to Ludwig Förster's plans. The second largest
synagogue (the largest stands in New York) in the
world can take in 3,000 people. Its Byzantine-
Moorish style will fascinate you and remind you of
monuments in the Middle-East. Two onion-shaped
domes sit on the twin towers at 43 m height. The
towers symbolize the two columns of Solomon's
Budapest is the capital of Hungary. As the largest city of Hungary, it serves as the
country's principal political, cultural, commercial, industrial, and transportation centre.
In 2010, Budapest had 1,721,556 inhabitants, down from its 1980 peak of 2.06 million.
The Budapest Commuter Areas home to 3,271,110 people. The city covers an area of
525 square kilometres (202.7 sq mi) within the city limits. Budapest became a single
city occupying both banks of the river Danube with a unification on 17 November 1873
of right (west)-bank Buda and Óbuda with left (east)-bank Pest.
Historically, Aquincum, originally a Celtic settlement, was the direct ancestor of
Budapest, becoming the Roman capital of Lower Pannonia. Magyars arrived in the
territory in the 9th century. Their first settlement was pillaged by the Mongols in
1241-42. The re-established town became one of the centres of Renaissance humanist
culture in the 15th century. Following the Battle of Mohács and nearly 150 years of
1. What do these shoes commemorate?
2. What is the name of the business across the street to the left of this walkway?
3. Name one other tourist attraction in this city.
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|Answer to Quiz #313
July 10, 2011
1. Shoes on the Danube Promenade, commemorating the Jews who were shot
into the Danube by the Arrow Cross militiamen during 1944-1945.
2. CommerzBank, EuroNet ATM are two.
|This week's quiz photo was submitted by Quizmasters Bill and Mary Hurley.
|Congratulations to Our Winners
Sharon Martin Elaine C. Hebert
Janice M. Sellers Mary Osmar
Marilyn Hamill Gary Sterne
Milene Rawlinson Daniel E. Jolley
Roberta Martin Cindy Tarsi
Joshua Kreitzer Barbara Battles
Stan Read Margaret Paxton
Stephen Jolley Peter Norton
Harold Atchison Dennis Brann
Venita Wilson Don Draper
Diane Burkett Jessica Jolley
Betty Chambers Jim Bullock
Ceil Jensen Tish Olshefski
Alan Lemm Jim Kiser
Adrienne Walker Shirley Hamblin
Karen Petrus Donna Jolley
Kathleen Londagin Joyce Veness
Nicole Blank Collier Smith
Angel Esparza Sally Garrison
Maureen O'Connor Deborah Lee Stewart
John Chulick Laurel Fletchner
Carol Farrant Robert W. Steinmann Jr.
|Comments from Our Readers
|This was an very interesting part of history that I had never heard of before.
Such a poweful memorial! At first when I saw the shoes, I thought people had jumped
into the water right then ... and I was thinking "polar bear club" ... but on closer look I
realized that the shoes were older and I realized it was probably a memorial of sorts.
That's when I Googled "Shoe Memorial" and I got most of the information. So, so, so
sad!!!! Elaine C. Hebert
Another fascinating story. Thanks. This was a good one. Mary Osmar
There are multiple other attractions in Budapest. Off the top of my head, there are the
Great Synagogue on Dohany Street, the Gellert Spa, and Central Market Hall. We
visited there about 10 years ago and, coincidentally, my sister is currently en route to
visit her son and his family, who live in Budapest. :) Cindy Tarsi
Were I visiting Budapest, I would certainly plan on visiting the thermal baths.
It is amazing how one story can show the cowardly unspeakable nastiness and the
toweringly brave nobility of humanity. Peter Norton
other nearby tourist attractions are the Hungarian Academy of Sciences and the
Parliament, but I would be searching for the Gabor sister's birthplace if I visited there.
Such a sad chapter in history. I've visited 2 other Holocaust memorials (in Boston
and D.C.) and all are so poignant. Venita Wilson
Don't search "river side shoes" or you'll get a ton of ads for shoes. "Shoe memorial"
did the trick. Wikipedia gave a description and provided the location, however, Google
Maps doesn't have Street Views for Budapest. A 360 panorama was provided at
www.hvrg.com/budapest/budapest/holocaust/holocaust2.htm Jim Bullock
I was in Budapest last year with a Jewish friend. I cannot believe we missed this, but
we did! Maureen O'Connor
I learned a whole lot about Budapest, and Hungary in general during this one, I never
heard of this memorial before so it was pretty cool, Have a great week.
Robert W. Steinmann Jr.
I found this quiz especially poinient (I don't know how to spell that word and John is
not here to spell check) because I can never understand mans inhumanity to man. Why
do we hate those who are different from us? Milene Rawlinson
Miklós Vig was a Hungarian cabaret and jazz
singer, actor, comedian and theater secretary in
the 1920s, 30s and 40s. He was born in Budapest
on July 11, 1898.
The fact that he was married to a Catholic woman,
Kati Szőke, and the fact that he changed his name
from the Jewish-sounding Voglhut did not save
him from the Holocaust. On December 19, 1944,
Miklós was among a group of Jews who were
bound, lined up along the banks of the Danube
and machine-gunned into the river by Hungarian
Nazis, members of the Arrow Cross Party. The
Shoes on the Danube Promenade honors the
memory of those who were murdered in this
|How Gary and Collier Solved the Puzzle
The Shoes on the Danube Promenade is a
memorial created by Gyula Pauer and Can
Togay on the bank of the Danube River in
Budapest. It honors the Jews who fell
victim to fascist Arrow Cross militiamen
in Budapest during World War II, and
represents their shoes left behind on the
bank when they fell into the river after
It is located on the Pest side of the
Danube Promenade at the end of Szechenyi Street, about 300 metres (980 ft) south of
the Hungarian Parliament and near the Hungarian Academy of Sciences.
"A Cipők a Duna-parton elnevezésű kompozíció a nyilasterror idején Dunába lőtt
embereknek állít emléket. a szobrászművész hatvan pár korhű lábbelit formált meg
vasból. A parti szegély terméskövére erősített cipok mögött negyven méter hosszúságú,
hetven centiméter magas kőpad húzódik. Az emlékhely három pontján öntöttvas
táblákon magyarul, angolul és héberül olvasható a felirat: "A nyilaskeresztes fegyveresek
által Dunába lőtt áldozatok emlékére állíttatott 2005. április 16-án". forrás: MTI 2005.
április 16., szombat
Translation: "The composition entitled 'Shoes on the Danube Bank' gives remembrance
to the people shot into the Danube during the
time of the Arrow Cross terror. The
sculptor created sixty pairs of period-
appropriate shoes out of iron. The shoes are
attached to the stone embankment, and
behind them lies a 40 meter long, 70 cm
high stone bench. At three points are cast
iron signs, with the following text in
Hungarian, English, and Hebrew: "To the
memory of the victims shot into the Danube
by Arrow Cross militiamen in 1944–45.
Erected 16 April 2005." (Source: MTI,
Saturday, April 16, 2005.)
Népszabadság Online, 2005. április 15. 14:25
"Holokauszt-emlékművet avatnak szombaton, a holokauszt áldozatainak emléknapján
Budapesten. A hatvan pár, öntöttvasból mintázott korhű cipő a nyilasterror idején
Dunába lőtt embereknek állít emléket a Roosevelt tér és a Kossuth tér közötti szakaszon."
Translation: "A holocaust memorial will be dedicated on Saturday, the holocaust victim
memorial day, in Budapest. Sixty pairs of cast iron shoes, cast in the styles of the 40's,
stand in remembrance of the people shot into the Danube during the Arrow Cross
terror. The memorial lies on the riverbank between Roosevelt square and Kossuth
square." (source: Népszabadság Online, April 15, 2005.)
The idea to place a monument on the river embankment to the victims of the Arrow
Cross terror belongs to Gyula Pauer, Hungarian sculptor awarded the Kossuth-prize,
and to his friend Can Togay. The monument contains 60 pairs of iron shoes, forming a
|Shoes on the Danube Promenade on Google Earth
|A mosaic monument on the sidewalk,
not far from the shoes on the
embankment. Inscription in Hungarian
on it: In the memory of the Hungarians
who fell victims to the Arrow Cross
terror in the winter of 1944-45.
row of about 40 metres. It is a
commemoration dedicated to the victims
of the fascist Arrow Cross party who
shot the people right into the river, sparing
themselves the hard work of burials. The
victims had to take their shoes off, since
shoes were valuable belongings at the time.
The site is symbolic, this part of the
embankment was not the only one used
for this purpose.
The iron shoes were placed on the
embankment in April 16, 2005. The name
of the composition is Shoes on the
Danube Promenade, each pair being
modelled after a contemporary shoe from
|Shoes are visible along the Promenade
using Satellite View.
|Switching to Map View shows the Shoes
are across Szechenyi Rakpart from the
CommerzBank and EuroNet ATM.
honored as Righteous
among the Nations.
During World War II Lars
Ernster and Jacob Steiner
lived in the office of the
Swedish Embassy in
Budapest, Üllői Street 2-4.
In the night of January 8,
1945 all inhabitants were
dragged away to near the
Danube banks by an
Arrow Cross party
execution brigade of the
city commander. At
midnight, 20 policemen
with drawn bayonets broke
Between 1944 and 1945
Károly Szabó was one of the
typewriter mechanics of the
Swedish Embassy. Dr. Ottó
Fleischmann, a Doctor of
Medicine and psychologist,
employee of the Swedish
Embassy, motivated Károly
Szabó to play an active role in
the rescue actions of Raoul Wallenberg. Pál Szalai
supported his friend with important personal
documents, signed by the German command in the
Battle of Budapest. Karoly Szabó's intuitive purchase
decision for a leather coat was another key factor.
Black leather trench coat, was a means of inspiring fear
and respect, and the subsequent Hollywood image of
the black-clad, trench-coated Gestapo officer has
entered popular culture. In Budapest's Jewish
community he was known as "the mysterious man in
the leather coat".
Károly Szabó attracted exceptional attention on
December 24, 1944 as Hungarian Arrow Cross Party
members occupied the Embassy building on Gyopár
street. He rescued 36 kidnapped employees from the
Budapest ghetto. This action attracted Raoul
Wallenberg's interest. He agreed to meet Szabó's
influential friend, Pál Szalai, a high ranking member of
the police force The meeting was in the night of
December 26. This meeting was preparation to save
the Budapest ghetto in January 1945. Pál Szalai
into the Arrow Cross (Nyilas) house and rescued
everyone. Ernster and Steiner were among the rescued.
Ernster fled to Sweden, where later he was member of
the Board of Nobel Foundation (1977–88), and Steiner
fled to Israel, where he is now a professor at the
Hebrew University of Jerusalem.
Information from Jacob Steiner after he has read this
page: On December 25, 1944, Jacob Steiner's father
was shot dead by Arrow Cross militiamen, falling into
the Danube as a result. His father had been an officer in
World War I and spent 4 years as a prisoner of war in
Dr. Erwin K. Koranyi psychiatrist in Ottawa write
about the night of January 8, 1945 in his "Chronicle of
a Life" in 2006 "in our group, I saw Lajos Stoeckler"
and "The police holding their guns at the Arrowcross
cutthroats. One of the high-ranking police officers was
Paul Szalai, with whom Raoul Wallenberg used to deal.
Another police officer in his leather coat was Karoly
Cited as one of the most beautiful cities in Europe, its extensive World Heritage Site
includes the banks of the Danube, the Buda Castle Quarter, Andrássy Avenue, Heroes'
Square and the Millennium Underground Railway, the second oldest in the world. Other
highlights include a total of 80 geothermal springs, the world's largest thermal water
cave system, second largest synagogue, and third largest Parliament building. The city
attracts about 2.3 million tourists a year.
Considered an important hub in Central Europe, the city ranked 3rd (out of 65 cities) on
Mastercard's Emerging Markets Index (2008), and ranked as the most livable
Central/Eastern European city on EIU's quality of life index (both 2009 & 2010). It is
also ranked as "Europe's 7th most idyllic place to live" by Forbes. It is the highest
ranked Central/Eastern European city on Innovation Cities' Top 100 index, and has
featured well in a number of specialist rankings.
Budapest is home to the headquarters of the European Institute of Innovation and
Technology (EIT), and the first foreign office of the CIPA.
|Just a Few Budapest Tourist Attractions
|The Halászbástya or Fisherman's
Bastion is a terrace in neo-Gothic and
neo-Romanesque style situated on the
Buda bank of the Danube, on the Castle
hill in Budapest, around Matthias Church.
It was designed and built between 1895
and 1902 on the plans of Frigyes Schulek.
Between 1947–48, the son of Frigyes
Schulek, János Schulek, conducted the
other restoration project after its near
destruction during World War II.
Stranded on the Pest side for a week,
Count Széchenyi vowed that he would
finance construction of a permanent
bridge over the Danube, regardless of the
costs. It took him almost 50 years to
In 1836 Széchenyi commissioned William
Clark, an English engineer to draft the
plans of the bridge.
Construction began in 1842. A Scotsman, Adam Clark oversaw the works (he is a
namesake of William Clark). The final phase of construction took place during the
1848-49 Revolution and War of Independence.
One of the first walkers across the bridge were the soldiers of the Hungarian Army of
Independence. They retreated from the Austrian troops in 1849. The Austrians
attempted to blow up the bridge, but luckily the explosives did not go off.
The bridge facilitated the union of Buda, Pest and Óbuda in 1873 and contributed to
Budapest's boom. Széchenyi collapsed mentally in 1848 and was not able to see his
dream come true.
Unfortunately the Germans succeeded in destroying the bridge during the siege of
Budapest in 1945. Reconstruction began in 1947 and Chain Bridge was rebuilt in its
original form by 1949.
Adam Clark dug a tunnel under Castle Hill to provide easy access to places in Buda
behind the hill. The tunnel is exactly the same long than the Chain Bridge. According to
a popular anecdote, when it rains the bridge can be pushed into the tunnel to prevent it
from getting wet. www.budapest-tourist-guide.com/chain-bridge.html#history
St. Stephen's Basilica is the most important
church in Hungary, one of the most
significant tourist attractions and the third
highest building in the country.
It took more than 5 decades and 3
architects to build Budapest's Basilica.
Several misfortunate events delayed the
József Hild made the designs in 1845 but
because of the 1848/49 Revolution and
War of Independence works started only in
1851. After the death of Hild, Miklós Ybl, designer of the Opera House took over
overseeing the construction.
In 1868 the dome collapsed, luckily nobody died. Ybl drew up new plans and building
started again almost from scratch. He couldn't see his work completed, since he died in
József Krauser finished St Stephen's Basilica in 1906. According to the rumour, at the
Budapest great synagogue has witnessed tragic events in WW II. The Germans
established a ghetto for the Jews in 1944 that served as a gathering place for
deportation. Many people found refugee in the Dohány utca synagogue but thousands
died during the bleak winter of 1944/45. Their bodies are buried in the courtyard.