invalids are given priority [for the job]. Registered and express-delivery letters are for
the time being still delivered by Polish messengers."
Staring on 15 January 1941, the DPO served Jews through the Judenrat, which at that
time took over all its duties. A postal exchange was set up to serve the ghetto. It was
at first to have been located outside the ghetto (in the Simmons Passage, known as the
Nalewki Booths) but was finally housed on the premises of the preexisting Warsaw
Post Office 41, at 19 Zamenhof Street. All accounts between the DPO and the
Judenrat for delivering mail for the ghetto had to be settled in cash.
The Judenrat had to cover all the expenses connected with the operation of the postal
services in the ghetto. There were therefore extra charges on all postal services
(sending and delivering of letters, packages, telegrams), which were intended to make
postal activities in the ghetto possible. The list of extra payments was published by
Gazeta Zydowska on 16 July 1941.
Perec Opoczynski, who worked with the underground Ringelblum Archive (see
Chapter 4.3) and was employed as a postman, wrote in his memoirs: "People could not
understand and accept these extra payments (on top of the postage stamp), all the more
because the postals services were not efficent: letters and parcels arrived very late.
These delays were explained by the fact that between the closing down of the Polish
|Figure 2.52. The post office in the
ghetto: delivering packages.
In the Generalgouvernement the German Post Office
East (Deutsche Post Osten, DPO) operated. For the
citizens of occupied Poland, the postal services were
the only way of making contact with the world outside,
with relatives and friends in other towns and other
countries. Even before the ghetto was set up, access
to postal service was made difficult for the Jews. In
the autumn of 1940, Ringelblum noted: "Jews are
allowed to enter the Central Post Office in groups of
ten, so there is a long line outside, mainly women"
After the ghetto was set up, the DPA gradually handed
over their post office opreations in the area within the
walls to the Judenrat. on December 31, 1940, Gazeta
Zydowska noted: "The greater part of the postal
services in the Jewish District has passed into Jewish
management. Delivering ordinary letters is done by
Jewish postmen. When these are being employed war
|Figure 2.53. The post office
parcel depository at 20
|Figure 2. A German
occupation of Poland
occupation stamp (Scott
|Comments about the Stamps by Marcelle Comeau
| First I looked at the stamps and determined that the Zloty is the currency of Poland. I
continued down the trail of the stamps (I used to be a stamp collector) and found a
really nice stamp site that discussed the Occupation stamps and the area covered by
General Gouvernement (the south central part of Poland, including Warsaw and
This letter appears to have been written by one individual on behalf of another but I
didn't pursue research on the names.
On the back of the envelope was the stamp of the Oberkommando der Wehrmacht or
the military high command showing the letter had been opened by this group. The
Oberkommando der Wehrmacht was opening and reviewing all outgoing and incoming
mail, hence coded messages in some instances. Google translate was a help with
Geoffnet Oberkommando der Wehrmacht.
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oberkommando_der_Wehrmacht. Marcelle Comeau
Geoffnet meant that the letter had been censored by the German Armed Forces. It
would have been impossible because the United States and Germany were at war.
N.B. "Geoffnet" means "opened" in German. - Q. Gen.
I was drawn to the photos as I have similar letters. My great-grandparents were in
occupied Denmark and the letters were also opened and marked as censored. Purpose?
Likely telling relatives of their situation. A year later? Rozwadow was "removed" by
either deportation or outright murder. My great-grandmother died during the occupation
of Denmark. I've never heard an explanation of the circumstances.
My grandfather had a sister, Hortense Levy, living in Budapest at the beginning
of WWII. She was born on 12 Jun 1867 in Bern, Switzerland. I have searched for
years to find something about her. She was supposedly a housekeeper for a family,
never married. She was on the 1872, Alsace-Lorraine, France Citizenship
Declarations. Her father registered all of his children even though they were all living in
Switzerland. I hope she died of old age. Judy Levy
At first glance i knew this was interesting but looked difficult. I decided to take a stab
and googled "Continental Resettlement Co Inc". The first popup was the two
envelopes! so - IF I'm right - it was easy. Thank You! Debbie Johnson
I also learned about Dr. Stanislaw Lazowski and how he saved 8,000 Jews. His efforts
must have been after July of 1942 as 1,000 of those sent to Debica died.
I also have an interest in WWII Poland, but from the German side. My grandfather's
brother's descendants lived in Pomerania, and a couple of them were in the German
assault for several months, but were sent home for a while after that. I've interviewed
one of my cousins about that period, and have a fair idea of their viewpoint, but when it
comes to Jewish matters, she changes the subject. I've got a good relationship with
her and several siblings, and tiptoe around the most ticklish topics at this time. Thanks
for the links below.
Just FYI, one of the markers on your map is Gmina Dobra in the north. My
grandfather is from about 30 km south of there near Gmina Suchan (Zachan), and my
cousins including the one I interviewed are from close to Pyrzyce (Pyritz), about 25 km
SW of Zachan. The Holocaust is interesting, and I wish I had more time to spend on
all that area. I enjoy reading your work. Don Holznagel
|If you have a picture you'd like us to feature a picture in a future quiz, please
email it to us at CFitzp@aol.com. If we use it, you will receive a free analysis of
your picture. You will also receive a free Forensic Genealogy CD or a 10%
discount towards the purchase of the Forensic Genealogy book.
|If you enjoy our quizzes, don't forget to order our books!
|Click here to see results of
5th occasional photoquiz survey.
|Click here to see results of
10th occasional photoquiz survey.
|Answers to Quiz #368 - September 23, 2012
|1. What was the probable purpose of this letter?
2. Why would it have been impossible to send it a year later?
|Congratulations to Our Winners
Christina Walker Timmy Fitzpatrick
Collier Smith Nelsen Spickard
Donna Jolley Gus Marsh
Leon Stuckenschmidt Shirley Hamblin
Carol Farrant Dennis Brann
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Angel Esparza Judy Bradley
Marcelle Comeau Margaret Paxton
Loren Goethals Don Holznagel
Rebecca Bare Marjorie Wilser
Skip Murray Fiona Brooker
Judy Levy Mike Dalton
Debbie Johnson Arthur Hartwell
Daniel Jolley Talea Jurrens
|Comments from Our Readers
1. To order goods from the Continental Trading Company. This company
supplied flour, sugar, butter, and other staples to the Jewish Ghettos in Poland
during the War.
2. On July 21, 1942 the Rozwadow Ghetto was liquidated and all the Jews
transported to Debica work camp, and then further to death camps. Germany
did not permit mail to be sent to countries with which it was at war.
The US declared war on Germany after the attach on Pearl Harbor in Dec 1941.
Containing: tea, coffee, cocoa, rice,
sugar, condensed milk, chocolate, butter
and other articles
We send on behalf of relatives in the
|Stamped in Poland July 16, 1941
Arrived in New York 26 Aug 1941
|Durch Eilboten = By Courier
On Sept. 1, 1939, Germany invaded Poland, thus initiating the
first European campaign in World War II.
Two days later, Britain and France declared war on Germany.
On Sept. 17, under the secret provisions of the Nazi-Soviet
Non-Aggression Treaty, the Soviet Union invaded Poland from
the east. By Oct. 6, 1939, Poland was defeated and its territory
was parceled out between Germany, the Soviet Union, Slovakia
On June 21, 1941, Germany invaded the Soviet Union, quickly
recouping the parts of Poland that it had encouraged the Soviets
to occupy in 1939.Figure 1. A German occupation of Poland
2-zloty-on-100-pfennig occupation stamp (Scott N29).
The part of Poland that had belonged to Germany before World
War I was absorbed directly into Germany. The remaining south
central part of Poland, including Warsaw and Krakow, was
occupied under the name General Gouvernement and divided
into military districts with civil and military administrators. Its
governor general, Hans Franck, played a leading role in the
Holocaust and was one of the high-ranking Nazis convicted of
war crimes and crimes against humanity in the Nuremberg trials.
He was hanged Oct. 16, 1946.
The first occupation stamps issued Dec. 1, 1939, were German
President Paul von Hindenburg definitive stamps surcharged in
Polish currency and overprinted "Deutsche Post Osten"
(German Post East). A 2-zloty-on-100-pfennig occupation
stamp (Poland Scott N29) from this set is shown in Figure 1.
These were followed in March 1940 by Polish stamps of the
1937-39 issue heavily overprinted by "General Gouvernement"
and the eagle clutching wreathed swastika symbol of Nazi
Germany. A 30-groszy-on-30g occupation stamp (Scott N41) is
shown in Figure 2.
Stamps specifically designed and printed for the General
Gouvernement were first issued in August 1940. This series
featured buildings and monuments of Krakow, Lublin and
Warsaw. A 50g Court House in Krakow occupation stamp
(Scott N68) is shown in Figure 3.
Thereafter, a flood of new stamps was released. Many were
semipostals, most of which were issued to raise funds in
support of German war efforts. The design of the 50g+50g
semipostal stamp (Scott NB11) shown in Figure 4 depicts a
German peasant kitted out for wintery weather. The stamp is
inscribed "Winterhilfs-werk" (winter relief).
By October 1941, Adolf Hitler's portrait found its way onto
General Gouvernement stamps. Figure 5 shows a 40g Adolf
Hitler stamp (Scott N86) issued in 1941.
Like other occupation stamps, these appear after the regular
postage stamp listings in what is called the back-of-the-book
section of the Scott Standard Postage Stamp Catalogue.
After the war, Poland had the misfortune to be liberated from
the Germans by the other half of the team that dismembered it in
1939. To keep their territorial acquisitions from 1939, the
Soviets redrew the map of Poland, shifting its borders 100
kilometers to the west at the expense of Germany. Populations
were relocated in accordance with the new borders.
Rozwadów, a small shtetl in southeast
Poland near the broadest part of the River
San, once stood like a sentinel at the
Northernmost point of Galicia.
Rozwadów's Jewish life was ravaged by
the hostilities of World War I and the
Holocaust. Today, it adjoins the larger
town of Stalowa Wola, robbed of its
former Jewish identity and most records
of its very existence. This site strives to
restore memories/history of the
Rozwadówers, the Jewish way of life the
very roots to our own family
Rozwadów is included in the Kolbuszowa
Region Research Group (KRRG).
Shtetlach were interwoven together like a
tapestry and the Jewish people of
neighboring shtetlach linked by marriages,
trade and marketing. They shared
schools, cemeteries, kosher butchers,
bakers and more. Smaller shtetlach
registered their birth, marriages and death
in a nearby larger shtetl.
In 1939, the Jewish population of
Rozwadow was more than 2,000. On
September 24, 1939, the town was
captured by the Germans, and on October
2, the Jews were deported across the San
River into the Soviet held portion of
Poland. Later, Jews were permitted to
return, and by September 1940, some 400
Jews lived there legally, and a Judenrat
was formed. The final expulsion of Jews
took place on July 21, 1942, with all the
Jews being sent to Debica from where
they were dispersed to various locations.
Later, a labor camp was established in the
town, and Jews were brought in as
workers. It is estimated that about 1,000
Jews died in the camp.
For a more detailed history of Rozwadow,
|der Wehrmacht or the
military high command
showing the letter had
been opened by this group.
|The Oberkommando der Wehrmacht was opening and reviewing all
outgoing and incoming mail, hence coded messages in some instances.
Google translate was a help with Geoffnet Oberkommando der
|First I looked at the stamps and determined that the
Zloty is the currency of Poland. I continued down the
trail of the stamps (I used to be a stamp collector) and
found a really nice stamp site that discussed the
Occupation stamps and the area covered by General
Gouvernement (the south central part of Poland,
including Warsaw and Krakow).
|Figure 1 A German occupation
of Poland 2-zloty-on-100-pfennig
occupation stamp (Scott N29).
|Figure 3. A German
occupation of Poland
50g Court House,
stamp (Scott N68).
|Figure 4. A German
occupation of Poland
|Figure 5. A German
occupation of Poland
40g Adolf Hitler
postal services and organizing the Jewish
postal services, there was a gap of at least
ten days. During this time may sacks
accumulated with undelivered letters. The
new employees were inexperienced, and
before the old letters could be delivered
piles of new ones built up. The situation
was regulated only after additional staff
had been taken on to help organize the
letters" (154, 75-80).
|In a time when innocent people were brutally
murdered only for their nationality and religion, one
soldier stands out among the rest.
He defied the Germans, repeatedly risking his life to
save the lives of thousands. Dr. Eugene Lazowski
is considered a hero to many, but for him, saving
others was his only option—it was simply the right
thing to do.
|Dr. Lazowski was a soldier and doctor in the Polish Army, Polish
Underground Army and Red Cross during World War II. Based on a
medical discovery by his friend, Stanislaw Matulewicz, he created a
fake epidemic of a dangerous infectious disease, Epidemic Typhus, in
the town Rozwadow, as well as surrounding villages.