XXX
Kaiser Wilhelm II, King George V, and The
Duke of Connaught on horseback during
the funeral procession of Edward VII
May 10, 1910
XXX
Look-alikes
Nicholas II of Russia
and George V of England
XXX
Queen Victoria, and Albert with
Nicholas and Alexandra of Russia
wth their daughter Grand Duchess
Olga c. 1896
XXX
XXX
XXX
If the photo were to have been recreated exactly one hundred years later, in May 2010, with all heirs to the nine kings assembled and
sitting or standing in the same places, the following individuals would have been required, in most cases no more than two generations
removed:

Standing, L-R: King Harald V of Norway (grandson of Haakon VII), King Simeon II of Bulgaria (grandson of Ferdinand I), Dom Duarte
Duke of Braganza (third cousin once removed of Manuel II), Prince Georg Friedrich of Prussia (great-great-grandson of Wilhelm II), King
Constantine II of Greece (great-grandson of George I), King Albert II of Belgium (grandson of Albert I).  Seated, L-R: King Juan Carlos I
of Spain (grandson of Alfonso XIII), Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom (granddaughter of George V), Queen Margrethe II of
Denmark (great-granddaughter of Frederik VIII).

The Nine Kings' Heirs a Century Later, in order of seniority:
*www.royaltymonarchy.com/sovereigns/9kings1910.html
XXXXX
A fortnight earlier, on May 6, 1910, the 68-year-old King
Edward VII had died after a nine-year reign. Known
invariably as Edward the Caresser or Edward the
Peacemaker, he had been “Uncle of Europe” — the
German Kaiser, the Russian Tsar, the Norwegian King,
and the Dukes of  Hesse, Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, and
Brunswick were his nephews; his sisters married the
kings of Hellenes and Denmark respectively. Kings of
Belgium, Portugal and Bulgaria were his second cousins.

This grand royal family gathered in late May for Edward’s
funeral. There were twelve crowned heads and forty-
seven imperial, royal, apostolic, or serene highnesses. A
lone commoner was the former president Teddy
Roosevelt representing the United States, who was
allocated almost to the last of the procession. Preceding
XXXXX

How Collier and Jim Solved the Puzzle
XXX
Nine Kings at Buckingham Palace
iconicphotos.wordpress.com/2009/04/22/nine-kings/
www.royaltymonarchy.com/sovereigns/9kings1910.html
**********
**********
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Quiz #395 Results
Bookmark and Share
Answer to Quiz #396 - May 12, 2013
**********
QUIZMASTER
ROGUES GALLERY
1. What was the occasion for this photo?
2.  Name these nine people.
3.  Who is the youngest?
UPCOMING EVENTS
TinEye Alert
You can find this photo on TinEye.com,
but the quiz will be a lot more fun if you solve the puzzle on your own.
Answers:
1.  The funeral of Edward VII of England, May 20, 1910
2.  Rt to left back row:

King Haakon VII of Norway
King Ferdinand of Bulgaria
King Mauel of Portugal
Kaiser Wilhelm II of the German Empire
King George of the Hellnesa(Greece)
King Albert I of the Belgians

Seated right to left
King Alfonso XIII of Spain
King Emperor George V of the Great Britain
King Frederick VIII of Denmark
3.  King Manuel II, age 21
Congratulations to Our Winners!

Rebecca Bare               Jackie McCarty
Arthur Hartwell                 Marcelle Comeau
Nancy Nalle-McKenzie                Donna Jolley
Carol Stansell                Dennis Brann
Justin Campoli                Debbie Johnson
Grace Hertz, Mary, and Jamey Turney of the Fletcher Clan Fame
Dale Cheetham                Kelly Fetherlin
Collier Smith                Daniel Jolley
Janice M. Sellers                Jim Kiser
Nelsen Spickard                Sharon Martin
Janice M. Sellers                Margaret L. Paxton
Judy Pfaff
Robert and Donald McKenna, QPL and Son
Comments from Our Readers
By the way, the website where I got this information
blog.londonconnection.com/category/king-edward-vii/ has an error. Frederick VII of
Denmark cannot be in this photo since he died in 1863. It must be Frederick VIII.
 
Rebecca Bare
*****
First half of the 20th century was tough on Kings. Interesting that there were ten
kingdoms at that time.
 
Arthur Hartwell
*****
I at first thought this was Tsar Nicholas only to find out he was the only one missing.
I used as a search term 9 in full military dress and was able to find the picture and  
article Monarchy's last hurrah.
 
Nancy Nalle-McKenzie
*****
Check out how much George V looks like Czar Nicholas II if you get a chance...they
were cousins (I guess he wasn't invited to the funeral)
 
Dennis Brann
*****
I'm well acquainted with this picture so just googled Edward VII of England pic with
9 kings and it came up.  (Glad you're back. I always get concerned about you when
the quiz doesn't change weekly.)
 
Debbie Johnson
*****
It should be noted that the pictures featured in this week's quiz is a mirror image of
the one featured at Wikipedia. Based on only the overlap of the single breasted jackets
- it would appear that the quiz picture is the one which is reversed.
 
Kelly Fetherlin
*****
Without the need for any research I recognise/remember that that the occasion at
which the nine kings gathered was the funeral of Queen Victoria.  Can’t remember
off hand who was the youngest.

Ooops!  A quick google search reveals that I was wrong!  It was the funeral of
Victoria’s son King Edward.
 
Janice M. Sellers
*****
Have you seen "The Lost Prince"? There is a wonderful scene where two princes are
looking out the palace window and one is pointing out all the royalty of Europe --who
are all related.
 
Nelsen Spickard
*****
Those kings didn't look too comfortable with all that ceremonial garb on.  I saw some
other pictures of the parade through the streets.  The movies didn't have any sound.  I
hope it was a cool day for them.
 
Judy Pfaff
The Funeral Cortege
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Funeral_of_Edward_VII
The funeral was notable for the enormous number of important European and
world royalty that participated in it. The funeral procession saw a horseback
procession, followed by 11 carriages.

Figures on horseback included the following, along with various military figures and
equerries:

King George V, the late king's son
Wilhelm II, German Emperor, the late king's nephew
The Duke of Connaught and Strathearn, the late king's brother
King George I of Greece, the late king's brother-in-law
King Alfonso XIII of Spain, the late king's nephew-in-law
King Haakon VII of Norway, the late king's son-in-law (and nephew by marriage)
King Frederick VIII of Denmark, the late king's brother-in-law
King Manuel II of Portugal, the late king's second cousin
Tsar Ferdinand I of Bulgaria, the late king's second cousin
King Albert I of Belgium, the late king's second cousin
Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, heir-presumptive-throne of Austria-Hungary
Prince Yusuf Izzettin Efendi of the Ottoman Empire
Grand Duke Michael Alexandrovich of Russia, brother of Emperor of Russia &
    nephew-in-law to the late King
Prince Emanuele Filiberto, cousin of the King of Italy
Prince Fushimi Sadanaru, cousin of the Emperor of Japan
Constantine I of Greece, Duke of Sparta, heir to throne of Greece and nephew by
    marriage to the late King
Crown Prince Ferdinand of Romania, nephew-in-law to the late king
Rupprecht, Crown Prince of Bavaria
Albrecht, Duke of Württemberg
Alexander I of Yugoslavia, Hereditary Prince of Serbia
Prince Hendrik of the Netherlands, husband of Queen Wilhelmina
Ernest Louis, Grand Duke of Hesse and by Rhine, nephew to the late King
Adolphus Frederick V, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
Prince Heinrich of Prussia, nephew to the late king
Charles Edward, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, nephew to the late king
Prince Johann Georg of Saxony
Prince Carl of Sweden, nephew to the late King
Friedrich, Prince of Waldeck and Pyrmont
Prince Mohammed Ali of Egypt
Prince Arthur of Connaught, nephew to the late King
Prince Christian of Schleswig-Holstein, brother-in-law to the late King
Prince Albert of Schleswig-Holstein, nephew to the King
Prince Alexander of Battenberg, nephew to the late King
Alexander Duff, 1st Duke of Fife, son-in-law to the late King
Adolphus Cambridge, Duke of Teck, second cousin to the late king
Prince Francis of Teck, second cousin to the late king
Prince Alexander of Teck, nephew-in-law to the late King
Prince Andrew of Greece and Denmark
Grand Duke Michael Mikhailovich of Russia
Prince Maximilian of Baden
Prince Danilo of Montenegro
Prince Christopher of Greece and Denmark
Prince Philipp of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Adolphus Frederick VI, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
Prince Louis d'Orleans
Prince Pierre d'Orleans
Prince August Leopold of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Prince Bovaradej of Siam

Those who followed behind in the carriages included:

Queen Alexandra of Denmark, the late king's widow
Empress Maria Feodorovna of Russia, the late king's sister-in-law
The Princess Royal, Duchess of Fife, the late king's daughter
Princess Victoria, the late king's daughter
Queen Mary, the late king's daughter-in-law
The Queen of Norway, the late king's daughter
The Duke of Cornwall, the late king's grandson
Princess Mary, the late king's granddaughter
Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein, the late king's sister
Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll, the late king's sister
Princess Henry of Battenberg, the late king's sister
The Duchess of Connaught and Strathearn, the late king's sister-in-law
The Duchess of Albany, the late king's sister-in-law
Princess Patricia of Connaught, the late king's niece
Princess Alexandra of Fife, the late king's granddaughter
Princess Maud of Fife, the late king's granddaughter
Princess Helena Victoria of Schleswig-Holstein, the late king's niece
Princess Marie Louise of Schleswig-Holstein, the late king's niece
Prince Albert, the late king's grandson
Prince Henry, the late king's grandson
Prince George of Hanover and Cumberland, the late king's nephew-in-law
Prince Zaitao of China, representing the Qing Dynasty
President Theodore Roosevelt, representing the United States
Foreign Affairs Minister Stéphen Pichon, representing the French Republic
Sanad Khan Montaz-os-Saltanch, representing Persia
My method: I googled "nine princes" and got no pertinent results, so I
thought, "well, maybe they are kings instead"..Sure enough,
google-image for "nine kings" gives your image, the names and the
occasion. Then, it's just a matter of tracking down each one on Wiki
to see who was born last. I narrowed the search first by eliminating
the older-looking gents.

Added note: I suspect this might have been the last time so many
kings were assembled.

Collier Smith

*****
The youngest was probably King Manuel II of Portegal as he was
born in 1889. Too easy for me. I thought there were too many
Royals for one family and I knew a lot of monarchs ended their reign
around WWI so I googled "9 Royal's in one Photograph"
and it was the first hit.

Jim Kiser
The Funeral Procession
Roosevelt in Eighth Carriage
Lunches with King Afterward
NY Times article
May 21, 1910

Click here for pdf.
Country
Sovereign
Born
Reigned
Died
Greece
King George I
24 December
1845
27 June
1863
18 March
1913
18 March
1913
Spain
King Alfonso XIII
17 May
1861
17 May
1886
14 April
1931
28 February
1941
Bulgaria
King Ferdinand I
26 February
1859
7 July
1887
3 October
1918
10 September
1948
Germany
Emperor Wilhelm II
27 January
1859
15 June
1888
18 November
1918
4 June
1941
Norway
King Haakon VII
3 August
1872
18 November
1905
21 Septeember
1957
21 September
1957
Denmark
King Frederik VIII
3 June
1843
29 January
1906
14 May
1912
14 May
1912
Portugal
King Manuel II
19 March
1889
1 February
1908
4 October
1910
2 July
1932
Belgium
King Albert I
8 April
1875
23 December
1909
17 February
1934
17 February
1934
United Kingdon
King George V
3 Jun
1865
6 May
1910
20 January
1936
20 January
1936
*www.royaltymonarchy.com/sovereigns/9kings1910.html
Country
Sovereign or Claimant
Born
Reigned
Bulgaria
King Simeon II
16 June
1937
28 August
1943
15 September
1946
United Kingdom
Queen Elizabeth II
21 April
1926
6 February
1952
 
 
Greece
King Constantine II
6 June
1940
6 March
1964
8 December
1974
Denmark
Queen Margarethe II
16 April
1940
14 January
1972
 
 
Spain
King Juan Carlos I
5 January
1938
22 November
1875
 
 
Portugal
Dom Duarte, Duke of Braganza
14 May
1945
24 December
1976
 
 
Norway
King Harald V
21
February
1937
17 January
1991
 
 
Belgium
King Albert II
6 June
1934
9 August
1993
 
 
Germany
Prince Georg Friedrich of Prussia
10 June
1976
25 September
1994
   
**********
**********
King Edward VII
him was the largest gathering of the European royals, but reinstated in 1975.

This was their last hurrah. Austria-Hungary was represented at the funeral by Archduke
Franz Ferdinand, who assassination four years later would precipitate a world war
which would sweep away many monarchies. Within five years, Britain and Belgium
would be at war with Germany and Bulgaria. Of the nine sovereigns pictured, four
would be deposed and one assassinated.A revolution overthrew the Portuguese king just
five months later. George of Greece had been assassinated in 1913 and his son
abdicated in 1922.

This photo of the decorated and mustachioed men was taken by the Royal Warrant
holders, W. & D. Downey. [It] very well may be the only photograph of nine reigning
kings ever taken. Only five of the nine monarchies represented still exist today:
Norway, Spain (thanks to a restoration after nearly half a century without a king), the
United Kingdom, Denmark, and Belgium. Oddly, the four sovereigns whose monarchies
would not survive the twentieth century (Bulgaria, Portugal, Germany, and Greece) all
stood together. It would not be possible to take a photograph of nine reigning European
kings today, as there are only seven kingdoms remaining, three of which are currently
headed by queens regnant.

The German Kaiser, the Austrian Emperor, and the Russian Tsar were all forced to
abdicate after losing the war. The Tsar and his family were killed by the Bolsheviks
after Britain and her king refused to rescue them (fearing a revolution at home).
Another losing combatant of the WWI, Ferdinand of Bulgaria abdicated in order to save
the throne for his son Boris. The kingdom ­tottered on in a weakened state until the
Second World War. ­Alfonso of Spain fled his country when the Second Spanish
Republic was proclaimed in 1931; his descendants still rule the country after the
monarchy was
**********
**********
**********
King Edward VII
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_VII
Edward VII (Albert Edward; 9 November 1841 – 6
May 1910) was King of the United Kingdom and the
British Dominions and Emperor of India from 22
January 1901 until his death in 1910. He was the first
British monarch of the House of Saxe-Coburg and
Gotha, which was renamed the House of Windsor by
his son, George V.

Before his accession to the throne, he served as heir
apparent and held the title of Prince of Wales for longer
than any of his predecessors. During the long reign of
his mother, Queen Victoria, he was largely excluded
from political power and came to personify the
fashionable, leisured elite.
The Edwardian era, which covered Edward's reign and was named after him, coincided
with the start of a new century and heralded significant changes in technology and
society, including powered flight and the rise of socialism. Edward played a role in the
modernisation of the British Home Fleet, the reform of the Army Medical Services, and
the reorganisation of the British Army after the Second Boer War. Edward fostered
good relations between Great Britain and other European countries, especially France,
for which he was popularly called "Peacemaker."

Edward was born at 10:48 in the morning on 9 November 1841 in Buckingham Palace.
He was the eldest son and second child of Queen Victoria and her husband (and first
cousin) Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. He was christened Albert Edward at
St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle, on 25 January 1842. He was named Albert after
his father and Edward after his maternal grandfather Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and
Strathearn. He was known as Bertie to the family throughout his life.

As the eldest son of the British sovereign, he was automatically Duke of Cornwall and
Duke of Rothesay at birth. As a son of Prince Albert, he also held the titles of Prince of
Saxe-Coburg and Gotha and Duke of Saxony. He was created Prince of Wales and Earl
of Chester on 8 December 1841, Earl of Dublin on 17 January 1850, a Knight of the
Garter on 9 November 1858, and a Knight of the Thistle on 24 May 1867. In 1863, he
renounced his succession rights to the Duchy of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha in favour of
his younger brother, Prince Alfred.

In September 1861, Edward was sent to Germany, supposedly to watch military
manoeuvres, but actually in order to engineer a meeting between him and Princess
Alexandra of Denmark, the eldest daughter of Prince Christian of Denmark and his wife
Louise. Queen Victoria and Prince Albert had already decided that Edward and
Alexandra should marry. They met at Speyer on 24
September under the auspices of his elder sister,
Victoria, who had married the Crown Prince of Prussia
Edward's elder sister, acting upon instructions from their
mother, had met Princess Alexandra at Strelitz in June;
the young Danish princess made a very favourable
impression. Edward and Alexandra were friendly from
the start; the meeting went well for both sides, and
marriage plans advanced.

From this time, Edward gained a reputation as a playboy.
Determined to get some army experience, Edward
attended manoeuvres in Ireland, during which an actress,
Nellie Clifden, was hidden in his tent by his fellow
officers. Prince Albert, though ill, was appalled and
Albert Edward as a child.
visited Edward at Cambridge to issue a reprimand. Albert died in December 1861 just
two weeks after the visit. Queen Victoria was inconsolable, wore mourning clothes for
the rest of her life and blamed Edward for his father's death. At first, she regarded her
son with distaste as frivolous, indiscreet and irresponsible. She wrote to her eldest
daughter, "I never can, or shall, look at him without a shudder."

Once widowed, Queen Victoria effectively withdrew from public life. Shortly after
Prince Albert's death, she arranged for Edward to embark on an extensive tour of the
Middle East, visiting Egypt, Jerusalem, Damascus, Beirut and Constantinople. In part
political, the British Government wanted Edward to secure the friendship of Egypt's
ruler, Said Pasha, to prevent French control of the Suez Canal if the Ottoman Empire
collapsed. It was the first Royal Tour on which an official photographer, Francis
Bedford, was in attendance.

As soon as he returned to Britain, preparations were made for his engagement, which
was sealed at Laeken in Belgium on 9 September 1862. Edward and Alexandra married
at St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle, on 10 March 1863. Edward was 21; Alexandra
was 18.

Edward and his wife established Marlborough House as their London residence and
Sandringham House in Norfolk as their country retreat. They entertained on a lavish
scale. Their marriage met with disapproval in certain circles because most of Queen
Victoria's relations were German, and Denmark was at loggerheads with Germany over
the territories of Schleswig and Holstein. When Alexandra's father inherited the throne
of Denmark in November 1863, the German Confederation took the opportunity to
invade and annex Schleswig Holstein.  Queen Victoria was of two minds whether it was
a suitable match given the political climate. After the
couple's marriage, she expressed anxiety about their socialite
lifestyle and attempted to dictate to them on various matters,
including the names of their children.

Edward had mistresses throughout his married life. He
socialised with actress Lillie Langtry; Lady Randolph
Churchill (born Jennie Jerome, she was the mother of
Winston Churchill); Daisy Greville, Countess of Warwick;
actress Sarah Bernhardt; noblewoman Susan
Pelham-Clinton; singer Hortense Schneider; prostitute Giulia
Barucci; wealthy humanitarian Agnes Keyser; and Alice
Keppel. At least fifty-five liaisons are conjectured. How far
these relationships went is not always clear. Edward always
strove to be discreet, but this did not prevent society gossip
or press speculation. One of Alice Keppel's
great-granddaughters, Camilla Parker Bowles, became the
mistress and subsequently wife of Charles, Prince of Wales,
one of Edward's great-great-grandsons. It was rumoured
Albert and Alexandra
on their wedding
day-1863
that Camilla's grandmother, Sonia Keppel (born in May 1900), was the illegitimate
daughter of Edward, but she was "almost certainly" the daughter of George Keppel,
whom she resembled.Edward never acknowledged any illegitimate children. Alexandra
is believed to have been aware of many of his affairs and to have accepted them. or
press speculation. One of Alice Keppel's great-granddaughters, Camilla Parker Bowles,
became the mistress and subsequently wife of Charles, Prince of Wales, one of
Edward's great-great-grandsons. It was rumoured that Camilla's grandmother, Sonia
Keppel (born in May 1900), was the illegitimate daughter of Edward, but she was
"almost certainly" the daughter of George Keppel, whom she resembled.Edward never
acknowledged any illegitimate children. Alexandra is believed to have been aware of
many of his affairs and to have accepted them.

In late 1891, Edward's eldest son, Albert Victor, was engaged to Princess Victoria
Mary of Teck. Just a few weeks later, in early 1892, Albert Victor died of pneumonia.
Edward was grief-stricken. "To lose our eldest son", he wrote, "is one of those
calamities one can never really get over". Edward told Queen Victoria, "[I would] have
given my life for him, as I put no value on mine". Albert Victor was the second of
Edward's children to die. In 1871, his youngest son, John, had died just 24 hours after
being born. Edward had insisted on placing John in his coffin personally with "the tears
rolling down his cheeks".

When Queen Victoria died on 22 January 1901, Edward became King of the United
Kingdom, Emperor of India and, in an innovation, King of the British Dominions. He
chose to reign under the name Edward VII, instead of Albert Edward-the name his
mother had intended for him to use, declaring that he did not wish
to "undervalue the name of Albert" and diminish the status of his
father with whom among royalty the "name should stand alone".
The number VII was occasionally omitted in Scotland, even by
the national church, in deference to protests that the previous
Edwards were English kings who had "been excluded from
Scotland by battle". J. B. Priestley recalled, "I was only a child
when he succeeded Victoria in 1901, but I can testify to his
extraordinary popularity. He was in fact the most popular king
England had known since the earlier 1660s."

Edward VII and Alexandra were crowned at Westminster Abbey
on 8 August 1902 by the 80-year-old Archbishop of Cneterbury,
Frederick Temple, who died only four months later.  Edward's
coronation had originally been scheduled for 26 June, but two
days before on 24 June, Edward was diagnosed with appendicitis. Appendicitis was
generally not treated operatively and carried a high mortality rate, but developments in
anaesthesia and antisepsis in the preceding 50 years made life-saving surgery possible.
Sir Frederick Treves, with the support of Lord Lister, performed a then-radical
operation of draining the infected appendix through a small incision. The next day,
Edward was sitting up in bed, smoking a cigar. Two weeks later, it was announced that
the King was out of danger. Treves was honoured with a baronetcy (which Edward
had arranged before the operation) and appendix surgery entered the medical
mainstream.

Edward was related to nearly every other European monarch and came to be known as
the "uncle of Europe". Kaiser Wilhelm II and Tsar Nicholas II were his nephews;
Queen Victoria Eugenia of Spain, Crown Princess Margaret of Sweden, Crown
Princess Marie of Romania, Crown Princess Sophia of Greece, and Empress Alexandra
of Russia were his nieces; Haakon VII of Norway was both his nephew by marriage
and his son-in-law; George I of Greece and Frederick VIII of Denmark were his
brothers-in-law; Albert I of Belgium, Ferdinand of Bulgaria, and Charles I and Manuel II
of Portugal were his second cousins. Edward doted on his grandchildren, and indulged
them, to the consternation of their governesses. However, there was one relation whom
Edward did not like: Wilhelm II. Edward's difficult relationship with his nephew
exacerbated the tensions between Germany and Britain.

Edward usually smoked twenty cigarettes and twelve cigars a day. Towards the end of
his life he increasingly suffered from bronchitis.  In March 2010, the King was staying
at Biarritz when he collapsed.  He remained there to convalesce, while in London
Asquith tried to get the Finance Bill passed. The King's continued ill health was
unreported and he attracted criticism for staying in Europe while political tensions were
so high.  On 27 April he returned to Buckingham Palace, still suffering from severe
bronchitis. Alexandra returned home from visiting her brother, King George I of
Greece, in Corfu a week later on 5 May.

The following day, the King suffered
several heart attacks, but refused to go to
bed saying, "No, I shall not give in; I shall
go on; I shall work to the end." Between
moments of faintness, the Prince of
Wales (shortly to be King George V) told
him that his horse, Witch of the Air, had
won at Kempton Park that afternoon. The
King replied, "I am very glad": his final
words. At 11:30 pm he lost
Queen Alexandra in her carriage
during the funeral procession.
consciousness for the last time and was put to bed. He died 15 minutes later.

Edward VII was buried at St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle, on 20 May 1910. As
Barbara Tuchman noted in The Guns of August, his funeral marked "the greatest
assemblage of royalty and rank ever gathered in one place and, of its kind, the last".
XXX
Edward VII at Balmoral
Photo taken by Queen Alexandra