below Franz Ferdinand’s, reflecting her lower status. Their children (who were not
included in the succession), were forbidden from attending the ceremony in Vienna.

More importantly for European politics, no foreign dignitaries were in attendance.
Reportedly, foreign royalty wishing to attend were told their presence was not wanted.
Officially, this was to spare the 83-year old Franz Josef from the fatigue at such a
trying time, but it may have simply been a further expression of the Emperor’s
displeasure.  More intriguingly, it has been suggested by Austrian officials that Foreign
Minister Berchtold arranged for the lack of dignitaries so that a convocation of
European royalty could not be present to act as a moderating influence on the Emperor
while Berchtold was agitating for war with Serbia.

There was to be one exception—-Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany, a close personal
friend of Franz Ferdinand’s who had last seen him only a couple of weeks previously.
However, on July 2, Wilhelm bowed out, officially due to an attack of lumbago.
XXX
He seemed to be losing consciousness during his last few minutes, but, his voice
growing steadily weaker, he repeated the phrase perhaps six or seven times more.

A rattle began to issue from his throat, which subsided as the car drew in front of the
Konak bersibin (Town Hall). Despite several doctors' efforts, the Archduke died shortly
after being carried into the building while his beloved wife was almost certainly dead
from internal bleeding before the motorcade reached the Konak.

There are no photographs of the actual assassination, and the famous image purporting
to be the arrest of Gavrilo Princip actually shows Ferdinand Behr, a passerby who
objected to the street lynching of Princip and was hauled off by the gendarmes.

Following the assassination, mobs of Bosnian Muslims and Catholics launched a
archduke's aides attempted to undo his coat but realized they needed scissors to cut it
open. It was too late; he died within minutes. Sophie also died en route to the hospital.

One bullet pierced Franz Ferdinand's neck while the other pierced Sophie's abdomen. ...
As the car was reversing (to go back to the Governor's residence because the
entourage thought the Imperial couple were unhurt) a thin streak of blood shot from the
Archduke's mouth onto Count Harrach's right cheek (he was standing on the car's
running board). Harrach drew out a handkerchief to still the gushing blood. The
Duchess, seeing this, called: "For Heaven's sake! What happened to you?" and sank
from her seat, her face falling between her husband's knees.

Harrach and Potoriek ... thought she had fainted ... only her husband seemed to have an
The Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand
www.reiss-institute.org/articles/rare-photos-from-sarajevo-1914/
today-in-wwi.tumblr.com/post/90624573863/funeral-of-franz-ferdinand-and-sophie-chotek
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Quiz #463 Results
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Answers to Quiz #463 - January 25, 2015
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1. Who are these two people?
2. What is the location and the approximate date of the event?
3. Why is her coffin lower than his?
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TinEye Alert
You can find this photo on TinEye.com,
but the quiz will be a lot more fun if you solve the puzzle on your own.
Comments from Our Readers
I promise, I didnt use tineye  -- I did it the old fashioned way, google [lying in
state]. Off to watch the superbowl
Karen Petrus
They are the Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Hapsburg and his wife, Sophie Chotek.  
They were assassinated on June 28, 1914.  The location where this photo was
taken is the Imperial Palace in Vienna.  The new phrase that I learned with this quiz
is morganatic marriage.  I didnt confirm it, but I believe her coffin is lower because
she was of a lower social rank than he was.  Their marriage was a morganatic
marriage.  Because of her lower social rank, they could not be buried at the Imperial
Crypt.  They rest at the Artstetten Castle.

I did give in and used Tin Eye.  I thought the cross and the uniforms would give
me a clue.  They may well have been clues but they were of no help to me.
Carol Farrant
This was a fun one to search for. My two early guesses were not correct, so I
did a search for "husband and wife lying in state" and up popped this
image.
Rebecca Bare
I have been so busy, but I said, "Oh, I'll try the quiz this week..." finally.  I knew it
instantly! I need to make more time for brain fun.  :)
Audrey Nicholson
Our granddaughter (exchange student) is from Sarajevo.  At Christmas, we were
gifted a souvenir book "Sarajevo, 1914-2014".  In the book are several pages about
Franz and Sophia and the events that resulted in the assassination.  

It is a very sad story.  "On June 1914, while visiting Sarajevo, Sophie and her
husband Franz Ferdinand were assassinated.  Not many people know that this
was actually their first ride together in an official visit.  Before that, Sophie was not
allowed to accompany her husband in the royal carriage or on any official
occasions."  (page 6)  The assasinator, Gavrilo Princip was only 20 years old and
"died on 28 April 1918 (at the age of 24) of tuberculosis while imprisoned in
Terezin in the Czech Republic". (page 7)  

Our granddaughter was born in 1995 at the end of the last conflict in Sarajevo.
Judy Pfaff
Interesting term! [Morganatic marriage]. We always learn something from the
forensic quiz each week!
Grace Hertz and Mary Turner
Team Fletcher
Moganatic was a new word for me, too. It comes from the latin phrase:
matrimonium ad morganaticam, literally "marriage with morning gift" referring to
the gift the groom gives the bride (the dower) the morning after the wedding.

Not sure about why the 18". How the coffins were draped differed, too. From
royalmusingsblogspot.com:

The Archduke's coffin was surrounded by silver candlesticks "holding lighted
tapers."  At the foot of the coffin were cushions bearing Franz Ferdinand's "crown
and the Austrian Archducal two pointed hat, his general's plumed hat and sword,
and all his orders and decorations."

In contrast to the Duchess' morganatic status, the only items placed at the foot of
her coffin were her orders, "a pair of long white kid gloves and her fan, in
accordance with the Austrian custom."
Tynan Peterson
I was familiar with the term [morganatic] already because of Edward VIII.  I've
read a little bit about him.

I don't know how [other readers] found the answer, but I just knew from looking
at the photo who the people were.  Never seen the photo before, but my gut was
right.
Janice M. Sellers

Congratulations to Our Winners

Karen Petrus                Carol Farrant
Owen Blevins                Audrey Nicholson
Carol Stansell                Edward Vielmetti
Gary Elder                Rebecca Bare
Ellen Welker                Karen Lesley-Lloyd
Tynan Peterson                Betty Chambers
Edna Cardinal                Timmy Fitzpatrick
Judy Pfaff                Leon Stuckenschmidt
Ben Hollister                Milene Rawlinson
Janice M. Sellers                Cynthia Costigan
Ida Sanchez

Grace Hertz and Mary Turner
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How Ida Solved the Puzzle
XXX

How Ellen Solved the Puzzle
Determining who the two people were was not difficult. The
presence of the guards indicated that these were important people.
Their uniforms were of WWI era vintage, so the assassination of the
couple came to mind. I had to resort to Wikipedia to find the answer
to why Sophie's casket was lower. In doing so I learned a new
term-morganistic marriage, marriage between 2 people of unequal
rank. Also the significance of her gloves was that she had once been
a lady-in-waiting. The Hapsburgs certainly believed in holding
grudges.

Ellen Welker
Answers:
1.  Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife Sophie Chotek
2.  July 3-4, 1914 in Vienna Austria
3.  She was of lower rank than her husband.
XXX
Morganatic Marriage
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Morganatic_marriage
In the context of royalty, a morganatic
marriage is a marriage between people
of unequal social rank, which prevents
the passage of the husband's titles and
privileges to the wife and any children
born of the marriage. Now rare, it is
also known as a left-handed marriage
because in the wedding ceremony the
groom traditionally held his bride's
right hand with his left hand instead of
his right.

Generally, this is a marriage between a
man of high birth (such as from a
reigning, deposed or mediatised
dynasty) and a woman of lesser status
(such as a daughter of a low-ranked
noble family or a commoner). Usually,
neither the bride nor any children of
the marriage have a claim on the
bridegroom's succession rights, titles,
precedence, or entailed property. The
children are considered legitimate for
all other purposes and the prohibition
against bigamy applies.  In some  
XXX
Examples of Morganatic Marriages
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Morganatic_marriage
Husband
Wife
Date
King Erik XIV of
Sweden
His servant Karin
Månsdotter
1567 & 1568 (2d
time not
morganatic)
Ludwig Wilhelm,
Duke in Bavaria
Actress Henriette
Mendel
about 1856
Archduke Ferdinand
II of Austria
Philippine Welser, a
wealthy commoner
1557
Victor Emmanuel II
of Italy
Principal mistress
Rosa Teresa
Vercellana Guerrieri
1869
Fernando II of
Portugal
Opera singer Elise
Hensler
1869
Ghengis Khan
Several morganatic
wives
late 1100's
early 1200's
Archduke Franz
Ferdinand of Austria
Sophie Chotek, lady in
waiting
1900
Duke of Windsor
(Edward VIII)
Wallace Simpson
1937
Emperor Alexander II
of Russia
Princess Ekaterina
Mihailovna
Dolgorukova
1880
On Sunday, 28 June 1914, at approximately 10:45
am, Franz Ferdinand and his wife were killed in
Sarajevo, the capital of the Austro-Hungarian
province of Bosnia and Herzegovina, by Gavrilo
Princip, 19 at the time, a member of Young
Bosnia and one of a group of assassins organized
and armed by the Black Hand. The event led to a
chain of events that eventually triggered World
War I.

Earlier in the day, the couple had been attacked by
Nedeljko Čabrinović, who had thrown a grenade
at their car. However, the bomb detonated behind
them, hurting the occupants in the following car.
On arriving at the Governor's residence, Franz
angrily shouted, "So this is how you welcome
your guests — with bombs?!"

After a short rest at the Governor's residence, the
royal couple insisted on seeing all those who had
been injured by the bomb at the local hospital.
However, no one told the drivers that the itinerary
had been changed. When the error was
discovered, the drivers had to turn around. As the
cars backed down the street and onto a side
street, the line of cars stalled. At this same time,
Princip was sitting at a cafe across the street. He
instantly seized his opportunity and walked across
the street and shot the royal couple. He first shot
Sophie in the abdomen and then shot Franz
Ferdinand in the neck. Franz leaned over his wife
crying. He was still alive when witnesses arrived
to render aid. His dying words to Sophie were,
'Don't die darling, live for our children.' Princip's
weapon was the pocket-sized FN Model 1910
pistol chambered for the .380 ACP cartridge
provided him by Serbian Army Colonel and Black
Hand member Dragutin Dimitrijević. The
Gavrilo Princip (25 July [O.S. 13 July] 1894 – 28 April
1918) was a Bosnian Serb who assassinated Archduke
Franz Ferdinand of Austria and his wife, Sophie, Duchess
of Hohenberg, in Sarajevo on 28 June 1914. He was born
in the remote hamlet of Obljaj, near Bosansko Grahovo, on
25 July [O.S. 13 July] 1894. He was one of nine children,
six of whom died in infancy. He was named Gavrilo at the
insistence of a local Serbian Orthodox priest, who claimed
that naming the sickly infant after the Archangel Gabriel
would help him survive.

On 28 June 1914, Gavrilo Princip participated in the
assassination in Sarajevo of the Austrian Archduke Franz
Ferdinand and his wife, Duchess Sophie Chotek of
Austria. The governor of the Austrian provinces of Bosnia
Gavrilo Princip
25 Jul 1894-28 Apr 1918
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gavrilo_Princip
and Herzegovina, General Oskar Potiorek, had invited the Archduke and Duchess
Sophie to the opening of a hospital. Franz Ferdinand knew that the visit would be
dangerous; his uncle, Emperor Franz Joseph, had been the subject of an assassination
attempt by the Black Hand in 1911.

Just before 10 a.m. on Sunday, the royal couple arrived in Sarajevo by train. The royal
couple were then to take an automobile into the city. In the front car was Fehim
Čurčić, the mayor of Sarajevo and Dr. Edmund Gerde, the city's Commissioner of
Police. Franz Ferdinand and Sophie were in the second car with Oskar Potiorek and
Lieutenant Colonel Count Franz von Harrach. The car's top was rolled back in order to
allow the crowds a good view of its occupants.

The seven conspirators lined the route. They were spaced out along the Appel Quay,
each one with instructions to try to kill Franz Ferdinand when the royal car reached his
position. The first conspirator on the route to see the royal car was Muhamed
Mehmedbašić. Standing by the Austro-Hungarian Bank, Mehmedbašić lost his nerve
and allowed the car to pass without taking action. Mehmedbašić later said that a
Princip, first row center, on trial 5 Dec 1914
car as it drove past, having taken the
wrong turn. After realizing the mistake,
the driver put his foot on the brake, and
began to reverse the car. In doing so the
engine of the car stalled and the gears
locked, giving Princip his opportunity.
Princip stepped forward, drew his pistol
(Belgium M 1910 .380 ACP
Semi-Auto][26]), and at a distance of
about 1.5 m (five feet), fired twice into
the car. Franz Ferdinand was hit in the
neck and Sophie (who instinctively
covered Franz's body with her own after
the first shot) in the abdomen. They both
died before 11:00 am.
Archduke Franz Ferdinand and
his wife Sophie Chotek
policeman was standing behind him and
feared he would be arrested before he had
a chance to throw his bomb.

At 10:15, when the six-car procession
passed the central police station, nineteen-
year-old student Nedeljko Čabrinović
hurled a hand grenade at the Archduke's
car. The driver accelerated when he saw
the object flying towards him, but the
bomb had a 10-second delay and
exploded under the wheel of the fourth
car, two of the occupants, Eric von Merizzi and Count Alexander von Boos-Waldeck,
were seriously wounded. About a dozen spectators were also hit by bomb shrapnel.

After Čabrinović's bomb missed the Archduke's car, five other conspirators, including
Princip, lost an opportunity to attack because of the heavy crowds and the high speed
of the Archduke's car. To avoid capture, Čabrinović swallowed a cyanide capsule and
jumped into the River Miljacka to make sure he died. The cyanide pill was expired and
made him sick, but failed to kill him and the River Miljacka was only 10 centimetres (4
in) deep. A few seconds later he was hauled out and detained by police.

Franz Ferdinand later decided to go to the hospital and visit the victims of Čabrinović's
failed bombing attempt. In order to avoid the city centre, General Oskar Potiorek
decided that the royal car should travel straight along the Appel Quay to the Sarajevo
Hospital. However, Potiorek forgot to inform the driver, Leopold Loyka, about this
decision. On the way to the hospital, Loyka took a right turn into Franz Josef Street.

Princip was standing near Moritz Schiller's cafe, when he spotted Franz Ferdinand's
Princip attempted suicide first with cyanide, then with his pistol, but he vomited the
past-date poison (as did Čabrinović, leading the police to believe the group had been
deceived and bought a much weaker poison) and the pistol was wrested from his hand
before he had a chance to fire another shot.

Princip was 19 years old at the time of the assassinations and too young to receive the
death penalty, being only twenty-seven days short of the 20-year minimum age limit
required by Habsburg law for the death sentence. Instead, he received the maximum
sentence of twenty years in prison. He was held in harsh conditions which were
worsened by the war. He contracted tuberculosis. He died on 28 April 1918 at Terezín
3 years and 10 months after he assassinated the Archduke and Duchess. At the time of
his death, Princip, weakened by malnutrition and disease, weighed around 40 kilograms
(88 lb; 6 st 4 lb). His body had become wracked by skeletal
tuberculosis that ate away his bones so badly that his right
arm had to be amputated.

Fearing his bones might become relics for Slav nationalists,
Princip’s jailers took the body in secret to an unmarked grave,
but a Czech soldier assigned to the burial remembered the
location, and in 1920 Princip and the other "Heroes of
Vidovdan" were disinterred and brought to Sarajevo, where
they were buried together beneath a chapel "built to
commemorate for eternity our Serb Heroes" at St. Mark’s
Cemetery.
Principe's Cell
instinct for what was happening. Turning
to his wife despite the bullet in his neck,
Franz Ferdinand pleaded: "Sopherl!
Sopherl! Sterbe nicht! Bleibe am Leben für
unsere Kinder! - Sophie dear! Don't die!
Stay alive for our children!" Having said
this, he seemed to sag down himself. His
plumed hat ... fell off; many of its green
feathers were found all over the car floor.
Count Harrach seized the Archduke by the
uniform collar to hold him up. He asked
"Leiden Eure Kaiserliche Hoheit sehr? - Is
Your Imperial Highness suffering very
badly?" "Es ist nichts. - It is nothing." said
the Archduke in a weak but audible voice.
Grand Duke Franz Ferdinand and his wife
Sophie leaving City Hall in Sarajevo,
minutes before they were assassinated.
www.reiss-institute.org
pogrom of Serbs in Sarajevo, killing at least two
people and causing widespread property damage.
Similar pogroms were recorded throughout Bosnia,
Herzegovina, and (present-day) Croatia.
Contemporary reports called the anti-Serb riots
“officially encouraged.”

The bodies of the Archduke and his wife were taken
by train to the sea, then transported aboard the
warship Viribus Unitis to Trieste, and then by train
to Vienna. The funeral was held on July 3.  It was a
relatively low-key affair for a man whose death
would plunge Europe into war within four weeks.  
The Emperor Franz Josef himself did not attend,
having never forgiven his nephew his morganatic
marriage to Sophie Chotek.  This was reflected
throughout the ceremony; Sophie’s coffin was
relatively unadorned and was placed a full 20 inches
Franz Ferdinand's blood-stained
uniform
countries, a woman could marry a man of lower rank morganatically.

After World War I the heads of both ruling and formerly reigning
dynasties initially continued the practice of rejecting dynastic titles
and/or rights for descendants of "morganatic" unions, but gradually
allowed them, sometimes retroactively, effectively de-morganatizing
the wives and children.

Variations of morganatic marriage were also practised by
non-European dynasties, such as the Royal Family of Thailand, the
polygamous Mongols as to their non-principal wives, and other
families of Africa and Asia.

Etymology

Morganatic, already in use in English by 1727 (according to the
Oxford English Dictionary), is derived from the medieval Latin
morganaticus from the Late Latin phrase matrimonium ad
morganaticam and refers to the gift given by the groom to the bride
on the morning after the wedding, morning gift, i.e., dower. The
Latin term, applied to a Germanic custom, was adopted from a
Germanic term, *morgangeba (compare Early English morgengifu,
German Morgengabe, Danish and Norwegian Bokmål Morgengave,
Norwegian Nynorsk Morgongåve and Swedish Morgongåva). The
literal meaning is explained in a 16th-century passage quoted by Du
Cange as, "a marriage by which the wife and the children that may be
born are entitled to no share in the husband's possessions beyond the
'morning-gift'".

Meyers Konversations-Lexikon of 1888 gives an etymology of the
German term Morganitische Ehe as a combination of the ancient
Gothic morgjan, to limit, to restrict, occasioned by the restricted gifts
from the groom in such a marriage and the morning gift. Morgen is
the German word for morning, while the Latin word is matutinus.

The morning gift has been a customary property arrangement for
marriage found first in early medieval German cultures (such as the
Lombards) and also among ancient Germanic tribes, and the church
drove its adoption into other countries in order to improve the wife's
security by this additional benefit. The bride received property from
the bridegroom's clan. It was intended to ensure her livelihood in
widowhood, and it was to be kept separate as the wife's discrete
possession. However, when a marriage contract is made wherein the
bride and the children of the marriage will not receive anything else
(than the dower) from the bridegroom or from his inheritance or
clan, that sort of marriage was dubbed as "marriage with only the
dower and no other inheritance", i.e., matrimonium morganaticum.
Archduke Franz Ferdinand
with his wife Sophie,
Duchess of Hohenberg, and
their three children from
their morganate marriage:  
Prince Ernst von Hohenberg,
Princess Sophie, and
Maximilian, Duke of
Hohenburg, in 1910

Unofficially, though, the trip was
cancelled due to security concerns.  
German Chancellor Bethmann-Hollweg
informed the Emperor that he had “been
obliged to request His Majesty the Kaiser
to abandon his trip to Vienna” as
successful assassinations “are well
known to have a suggestive effect on
criminal elements”—hardly a vote of
confidence on Austrian competency from
the Germans.
The funeral procession.
The last-second cancellation of Kaiser Wilhelm’s visit had immediate consequences for
delicate Austro-German diplomacy.  Both Berchtold and Tisza had hoped that the visit
would allow the Kaiser to be brought around to be decisively in favor of war or peace,
respectively.

The couple was buried at Artstetten Castle, the Hapsburg’s summer home; the Imperial
crypt was off-limits to Sophie, as her marriage to the Archduke had been morganatic
(she could not be a royal consort, as her rank was not noble enough for the Hapsburgs).

A monument was put up sometime in 1914, across the street from where the
assassination took place. It was demolished in 1918.

The assassinations, along with the arms race, nationalism, imperialism, militarism, and
the alliance system all contributed to the origins of World War I, which began a month
after Franz Ferdinand's death, with Austria-Hungary's declaration of war against Serbia.
The assassination of Ferdinand is considered the most immediate cause of World War I
(Above) The tomb of Franz Ferdinand and
Sophie Chotek; (Right) Monument to the
Archduke and his wife, installed across the
street where they died.  It was demolished
in 1918.
**********