below Franz Ferdinand’s, reflecting her lower status. Their children (who were not included in the succession), were forbidden from attending the ceremony in Vienna.
More importantly for European politics, no foreign dignitaries were in attendance. Reportedly, foreign royalty wishing to attend were told their presence was not wanted. Officially, this was to spare the 83-year old Franz Josef from the fatigue at such a trying time, but it may have simply been a further expression of the Emperor’s displeasure. More intriguingly, it has been suggested by Austrian officials that Foreign Minister Berchtold arranged for the lack of dignitaries so that a convocation of European royalty could not be present to act as a moderating influence on the Emperor while Berchtold was agitating for war with Serbia.
There was to be one exception—-Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany, a close personal friend of Franz Ferdinand’s who had last seen him only a couple of weeks previously. However, on July 2, Wilhelm bowed out, officially due to an attack of lumbago.
He seemed to be losing consciousness during his last few minutes, but, his voice growing steadily weaker, he repeated the phrase perhaps six or seven times more.
A rattle began to issue from his throat, which subsided as the car drew in front of the Konak bersibin (Town Hall). Despite several doctors' efforts, the Archduke died shortly after being carried into the building while his beloved wife was almost certainly dead from internal bleeding before the motorcade reached the Konak.
There are no photographs of the actual assassination, and the famous image purporting to be the arrest of Gavrilo Princip actually shows Ferdinand Behr, a passerby who objected to the street lynching of Princip and was hauled off by the gendarmes.
Following the assassination, mobs of Bosnian Muslims and Catholics launched a
archduke's aides attempted to undo his coat but realized they needed scissors to cut it open. It was too late; he died within minutes. Sophie also died en route to the hospital.
One bullet pierced Franz Ferdinand's neck while the other pierced Sophie's abdomen. ... As the car was reversing (to go back to the Governor's residence because the entourage thought the Imperial couple were unhurt) a thin streak of blood shot from the Archduke's mouth onto Count Harrach's right cheek (he was standing on the car's running board). Harrach drew out a handkerchief to still the gushing blood. The Duchess, seeing this, called: "For Heaven's sake! What happened to you?" and sank from her seat, her face falling between her husband's knees.
Harrach and Potoriek ... thought she had fainted ... only her husband seemed to have an
TinEye Alert You can find this photo on TinEye.com, but the quiz will be a lot more fun if you solve the puzzle on your own.
Comments from Our Readers
I promise, I didnt use tineye -- I did it the old fashioned way, google [lying in state]. Off to watch the superbowl
They are the Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Hapsburg and his wife, Sophie Chotek. They were assassinated on June 28, 1914. The location where this photo was taken is the Imperial Palace in Vienna. The new phrase that I learned with this quiz is morganatic marriage. I didnt confirm it, but I believe her coffin is lower because she was of a lower social rank than he was. Their marriage was a morganatic marriage. Because of her lower social rank, they could not be buried at the Imperial Crypt. They rest at the Artstetten Castle.
I did give in and used Tin Eye. I thought the cross and the uniforms would give me a clue. They may well have been clues but they were of no help to me.
This was a fun one to search for. My two early guesses were not correct, so I did a search for "husband and wife lying in state" and up popped this image.
I have been so busy, but I said, "Oh, I'll try the quiz this week..." finally. I knew it instantly! I need to make more time for brain fun. :)
Our granddaughter (exchange student) is from Sarajevo. At Christmas, we were gifted a souvenir book "Sarajevo, 1914-2014". In the book are several pages about Franz and Sophia and the events that resulted in the assassination.
It is a very sad story. "On June 1914, while visiting Sarajevo, Sophie and her husband Franz Ferdinand were assassinated. Not many people know that this was actually their first ride together in an official visit. Before that, Sophie was not allowed to accompany her husband in the royal carriage or on any official occasions." (page 6) The assasinator, Gavrilo Princip was only 20 years old and "died on 28 April 1918 (at the age of 24) of tuberculosis while imprisoned in Terezin in the Czech Republic". (page 7)
Our granddaughter was born in 1995 at the end of the last conflict in Sarajevo.
Interesting term! [Morganatic marriage]. We always learn something from the forensic quiz each week!
Grace Hertz and Mary Turner Team Fletcher
Moganatic was a new word for me, too. It comes from the latin phrase: matrimonium ad morganaticam, literally "marriage with morning gift" referring to the gift the groom gives the bride (the dower) the morning after the wedding.
Not sure about why the 18". How the coffins were draped differed, too. From royalmusingsblogspot.com:
The Archduke's coffin was surrounded by silver candlesticks "holding lighted tapers." At the foot of the coffin were cushions bearing Franz Ferdinand's "crown and the Austrian Archducal two pointed hat, his general's plumed hat and sword, and all his orders and decorations."
In contrast to the Duchess' morganatic status, the only items placed at the foot of her coffin were her orders, "a pair of long white kid gloves and her fan, in accordance with the Austrian custom."
I was familiar with the term [morganatic] already because of Edward VIII. I've read a little bit about him.
I don't know how [other readers] found the answer, but I just knew from looking at the photo who the people were. Never seen the photo before, but my gut was right.
Janice M. Sellers
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Determining who the two people were was not difficult. The presence of the guards indicated that these were important people. Their uniforms were of WWI era vintage, so the assassination of the couple came to mind. I had to resort to Wikipedia to find the answer to why Sophie's casket was lower. In doing so I learned a new term-morganistic marriage, marriage between 2 people of unequal rank. Also the significance of her gloves was that she had once been a lady-in-waiting. The Hapsburgs certainly believed in holding grudges.
1. Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife Sophie Chotek
In the context of royalty, a morganatic marriage is a marriage between people of unequal social rank, which prevents the passage of the husband's titles and privileges to the wife and any children born of the marriage. Now rare, it is also known as a left-handed marriage because in the wedding ceremony the groom traditionally held his bride's right hand with his left hand instead of his right.
Generally, this is a marriage between a man of high birth (such as from a reigning, deposed or mediatised dynasty) and a woman of lesser status (such as a daughter of a low-ranked noble family or a commoner). Usually, neither the bride nor any children of the marriage have a claim on the bridegroom's succession rights, titles, precedence, or entailed property. The children are considered legitimate for all other purposes and the prohibition against bigamy applies. In some
On Sunday, 28 June 1914, at approximately 10:45 am, Franz Ferdinand and his wife were killed in Sarajevo, the capital of the Austro-Hungarian province of Bosnia and Herzegovina, by Gavrilo Princip, 19 at the time, a member of Young Bosnia and one of a group of assassins organized and armed by the Black Hand. The event led to a chain of events that eventually triggered World War I.
Earlier in the day, the couple had been attacked by Nedeljko Čabrinović, who had thrown a grenade at their car. However, the bomb detonated behind them, hurting the occupants in the following car. On arriving at the Governor's residence, Franz angrily shouted, "So this is how you welcome your guests — with bombs?!"
After a short rest at the Governor's residence, the royal couple insisted on seeing all those who had been injured by the bomb at the local hospital. However, no one told the drivers that the itinerary had been changed. When the error was discovered, the drivers had to turn around. As the cars backed down the street and onto a side street, the line of cars stalled. At this same time, Princip was sitting at a cafe across the street. He instantly seized his opportunity and walked across the street and shot the royal couple. He first shot Sophie in the abdomen and then shot Franz Ferdinand in the neck. Franz leaned over his wife crying. He was still alive when witnesses arrived to render aid. His dying words to Sophie were, 'Don't die darling, live for our children.' Princip's weapon was the pocket-sized FN Model 1910 pistol chambered for the .380 ACP cartridge provided him by Serbian Army Colonel and Black Hand member Dragutin Dimitrijević. The
Gavrilo Princip (25 July [O.S. 13 July] 1894 – 28 April 1918) was a Bosnian Serb who assassinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and his wife, Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg, in Sarajevo on 28 June 1914. He was born in the remote hamlet of Obljaj, near Bosansko Grahovo, on 25 July [O.S. 13 July] 1894. He was one of nine children, six of whom died in infancy. He was named Gavrilo at the insistence of a local Serbian Orthodox priest, who claimed that naming the sickly infant after the Archangel Gabriel would help him survive.
On 28 June 1914, Gavrilo Princip participated in the assassination in Sarajevo of the Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife, Duchess Sophie Chotek of Austria. The governor of the Austrian provinces of Bosnia
and Herzegovina, General Oskar Potiorek, had invited the Archduke and Duchess Sophie to the opening of a hospital. Franz Ferdinand knew that the visit would be dangerous; his uncle, Emperor Franz Joseph, had been the subject of an assassination attempt by the Black Hand in 1911.
Just before 10 a.m. on Sunday, the royal couple arrived in Sarajevo by train. The royal couple were then to take an automobile into the city. In the front car was Fehim Čurčić, the mayor of Sarajevo and Dr. Edmund Gerde, the city's Commissioner of Police. Franz Ferdinand and Sophie were in the second car with Oskar Potiorek and Lieutenant Colonel Count Franz von Harrach. The car's top was rolled back in order to allow the crowds a good view of its occupants.
The seven conspirators lined the route. They were spaced out along the Appel Quay, each one with instructions to try to kill Franz Ferdinand when the royal car reached his position. The first conspirator on the route to see the royal car was Muhamed Mehmedbašić. Standing by the Austro-Hungarian Bank, Mehmedbašić lost his nerve and allowed the car to pass without taking action. Mehmedbašić later said that a
Princip, first row center, on trial 5 Dec 1914
car as it drove past, having taken the wrong turn. After realizing the mistake, the driver put his foot on the brake, and began to reverse the car. In doing so the engine of the car stalled and the gears locked, giving Princip his opportunity. Princip stepped forward, drew his pistol (Belgium M 1910 .380 ACP Semi-Auto]), and at a distance of about 1.5 m (five feet), fired twice into the car. Franz Ferdinand was hit in the neck and Sophie (who instinctively covered Franz's body with her own after the first shot) in the abdomen. They both died before 11:00 am.
Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife Sophie Chotek
policeman was standing behind him and feared he would be arrested before he had a chance to throw his bomb.
At 10:15, when the six-car procession passed the central police station, nineteen- year-old student Nedeljko Čabrinović hurled a hand grenade at the Archduke's car. The driver accelerated when he saw the object flying towards him, but the bomb had a 10-second delay and exploded under the wheel of the fourth
car, two of the occupants, Eric von Merizzi and Count Alexander von Boos-Waldeck, were seriously wounded. About a dozen spectators were also hit by bomb shrapnel.
After Čabrinović's bomb missed the Archduke's car, five other conspirators, including Princip, lost an opportunity to attack because of the heavy crowds and the high speed of the Archduke's car. To avoid capture, Čabrinović swallowed a cyanide capsule and jumped into the River Miljacka to make sure he died. The cyanide pill was expired and made him sick, but failed to kill him and the River Miljacka was only 10 centimetres (4 in) deep. A few seconds later he was hauled out and detained by police.
Franz Ferdinand later decided to go to the hospital and visit the victims of Čabrinović's failed bombing attempt. In order to avoid the city centre, General Oskar Potiorek decided that the royal car should travel straight along the Appel Quay to the Sarajevo Hospital. However, Potiorek forgot to inform the driver, Leopold Loyka, about this decision. On the way to the hospital, Loyka took a right turn into Franz Josef Street.
Princip was standing near Moritz Schiller's cafe, when he spotted Franz Ferdinand's
Princip attempted suicide first with cyanide, then with his pistol, but he vomited the past-date poison (as did Čabrinović, leading the police to believe the group had been deceived and bought a much weaker poison) and the pistol was wrested from his hand before he had a chance to fire another shot.
Princip was 19 years old at the time of the assassinations and too young to receive the death penalty, being only twenty-seven days short of the 20-year minimum age limit required by Habsburg law for the death sentence. Instead, he received the maximum sentence of twenty years in prison. He was held in harsh conditions which were worsened by the war. He contracted tuberculosis. He died on 28 April 1918 at Terezín 3 years and 10 months after he assassinated the Archduke and Duchess. At the time of his death, Princip, weakened by malnutrition and disease, weighed around 40 kilograms
(88 lb; 6 st 4 lb). His body had become wracked by skeletal tuberculosis that ate away his bones so badly that his right arm had to be amputated.
Fearing his bones might become relics for Slav nationalists, Princip’s jailers took the body in secret to an unmarked grave, but a Czech soldier assigned to the burial remembered the location, and in 1920 Princip and the other "Heroes of Vidovdan" were disinterred and brought to Sarajevo, where they were buried together beneath a chapel "built to commemorate for eternity our Serb Heroes" at St. Mark’s Cemetery.
instinct for what was happening. Turning to his wife despite the bullet in his neck, Franz Ferdinand pleaded: "Sopherl! Sopherl! Sterbe nicht! Bleibe am Leben für unsere Kinder! - Sophie dear! Don't die! Stay alive for our children!" Having said this, he seemed to sag down himself. His plumed hat ... fell off; many of its green feathers were found all over the car floor. Count Harrach seized the Archduke by the uniform collar to hold him up. He asked "Leiden Eure Kaiserliche Hoheit sehr? - Is Your Imperial Highness suffering very badly?" "Es ist nichts. - It is nothing." said the Archduke in a weak but audible voice.
Grand Duke Franz Ferdinand and his wife Sophie leaving City Hall in Sarajevo, minutes before they were assassinated. www.reiss-institute.org
pogrom of Serbs in Sarajevo, killing at least two people and causing widespread property damage. Similar pogroms were recorded throughout Bosnia, Herzegovina, and (present-day) Croatia. Contemporary reports called the anti-Serb riots “officially encouraged.”
The bodies of the Archduke and his wife were taken by train to the sea, then transported aboard the warship Viribus Unitis to Trieste, and then by train to Vienna. The funeral was held on July 3. It was a relatively low-key affair for a man whose death would plunge Europe into war within four weeks. The Emperor Franz Josef himself did not attend, having never forgiven his nephew his morganatic marriage to Sophie Chotek. This was reflected throughout the ceremony; Sophie’s coffin was relatively unadorned and was placed a full 20 inches
Franz Ferdinand's blood-stained uniform
countries, a woman could marry a man of lower rank morganatically.
After World War I the heads of both ruling and formerly reigning dynasties initially continued the practice of rejecting dynastic titles and/or rights for descendants of "morganatic" unions, but gradually allowed them, sometimes retroactively, effectively de-morganatizing the wives and children.
Variations of morganatic marriage were also practised by non-European dynasties, such as the Royal Family of Thailand, the polygamous Mongols as to their non-principal wives, and other families of Africa and Asia.
Morganatic, already in use in English by 1727 (according to the Oxford English Dictionary), is derived from the medieval Latin morganaticus from the Late Latin phrase matrimonium ad morganaticam and refers to the gift given by the groom to the bride on the morning after the wedding, morning gift, i.e., dower. The Latin term, applied to a Germanic custom, was adopted from a Germanic term, *morgangeba (compare Early English morgengifu, German Morgengabe, Danish and Norwegian Bokmål Morgengave, Norwegian Nynorsk Morgongåve and Swedish Morgongåva). The literal meaning is explained in a 16th-century passage quoted by Du Cange as, "a marriage by which the wife and the children that may be born are entitled to no share in the husband's possessions beyond the 'morning-gift'".
Meyers Konversations-Lexikon of 1888 gives an etymology of the German term Morganitische Ehe as a combination of the ancient Gothic morgjan, to limit, to restrict, occasioned by the restricted gifts from the groom in such a marriage and the morning gift. Morgen is the German word for morning, while the Latin word is matutinus.
The morning gift has been a customary property arrangement for marriage found first in early medieval German cultures (such as the Lombards) and also among ancient Germanic tribes, and the church drove its adoption into other countries in order to improve the wife's security by this additional benefit. The bride received property from the bridegroom's clan. It was intended to ensure her livelihood in widowhood, and it was to be kept separate as the wife's discrete possession. However, when a marriage contract is made wherein the bride and the children of the marriage will not receive anything else (than the dower) from the bridegroom or from his inheritance or clan, that sort of marriage was dubbed as "marriage with only the dower and no other inheritance", i.e., matrimonium morganaticum.
Archduke Franz Ferdinand with his wife Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg, and their three children from their morganate marriage: Prince Ernst von Hohenberg, Princess Sophie, and Maximilian, Duke of Hohenburg, in 1910
Unofficially, though, the trip was cancelled due to security concerns. German Chancellor Bethmann-Hollweg informed the Emperor that he had “been obliged to request His Majesty the Kaiser to abandon his trip to Vienna” as successful assassinations “are well known to have a suggestive effect on criminal elements”—hardly a vote of confidence on Austrian competency from the Germans.
The funeral procession.
The last-second cancellation of Kaiser Wilhelm’s visit had immediate consequences for delicate Austro-German diplomacy. Both Berchtold and Tisza had hoped that the visit would allow the Kaiser to be brought around to be decisively in favor of war or peace, respectively.
The couple was buried at Artstetten Castle, the Hapsburg’s summer home; the Imperial crypt was off-limits to Sophie, as her marriage to the Archduke had been morganatic (she could not be a royal consort, as her rank was not noble enough for the Hapsburgs).
A monument was put up sometime in 1914, across the street from where the assassination took place. It was demolished in 1918.
The assassinations, along with the arms race, nationalism, imperialism, militarism, and the alliance system all contributed to the origins of World War I, which began a month after Franz Ferdinand's death, with Austria-Hungary's declaration of war against Serbia. The assassination of Ferdinand is considered the most immediate cause of World War I
(Above) The tomb of Franz Ferdinand and Sophie Chotek; (Right) Monument to the Archduke and his wife, installed across the street where they died. It was demolished in 1918.