|For an excellent video on Edward VI's
Devise for the Succession
Click on thumbnail.
could count on the support of her tenants. Northumberland sent ships to the Norfolk
coast to prevent her escape or the arrival of reinforcements from the continent. He
delayed the announcement of the king's death while he gathered his forces, and Jane
Grey was taken to the Tower on 10 July. On the same day, she was proclaimed queen
in the streets of London, to murmurings of discontent. The Privy Council received a
message from Mary asserting her "right and title" to the throne and commanding that
the Council proclaim her queen, as she had already proclaimed herself. The Council
replied that Jane was queen by Edward's authority and that Mary, by contrast, was
illegitimate and supported only by "a few lewd, base people".
Northumberland soon realised that he had miscalculated drastically, not least in failing to
secure Mary's person before Edward's death. Although many of those who rallied to
Mary were conservatives hoping for the defeat of Protestantism, her supporters also
included many for whom her lawful claim to the throne overrode religious
considerations. Northumberland was obliged to relinquish control of a nervous Council
in London and launch an unplanned pursuit of Mary into East Anglia, from where news
was arriving of her growing support, which included a number of nobles and gentlemen
|l. For lakke of issu (masle) of my body (to
the issu (masle) cumming of thissu femal,
as i haue after declared). To the L
Frau[n]ceses heires masles, For lakke of (if
she have any) such issu (befor my death)
to the L' Janes (and her) heires masles, To
the L Katerins heires masles, To the L
Maries heires masles, To the heires masles
of the daughters wich she shal haue
hereafter. Then to the L Margets heires
masles. For lakke of such issu, To th'eires
masles of the L Janes daughters.
To th'eires masles of the L Katerins
daughters, and so forth til yow come to the
L Margets (daughters) heires masles.
2. If after my death theire masle be entred
into 18 yere old, then he to have the hole
rule and gouernau[n]ce therof.
3. But if he be under 18, then his mother to
be gouuernres til he entre 18 yere old, But
to doe nothing w[i]t[h]out th'auise (and
agreme[n]t) of 6 parcel of a counsel to be
pointed by my last will to the nombre of 20.
4. If the mother die befor th'eire entre into
18 the realme to be gouuerned by the
cou[n]sel Prouided that after he be 14 yere
al great matters of importaunce be opened
5. If i died w[i]t[h]out issu, and ther were
none heire masle, then the L Fraunces to be
(gouuernres) rege[n]t. For lakke of her, the
her eldest daughters, and for lakke of them
the L Marget to be gouuernres after as is
aforsaid, til sume heire masle be borne, and
then the mother of that child to be
6. And if during the rule of the gouuernres
ther die 4 of the counsel, then shal she by
her letters cal an asse[n]ble of the counsel
wtin on month folowing and chose 4 more,
wherin she shal haue thre uoices. But after
her death the 16 shal chose emong
themselfes til th'eire come to (18 erased)
14 yeare olde, and then he by ther aduice
shal chose the[n].
|If you have a picture you'd like us to feature a picture in a future quiz, please
email it to us at CFitzp@aol.com. If we use it, you will receive a free analysis of
your picture. You will also receive a free Forensic Genealogy CD or a 10%
discount towards the purchase of the Forensic Genealogy book.
|If you enjoy our quizzes, don't forget to order our books!
1. Lady Jane Grey
2. Her husband, Lord Guildford Dudley
3. Beauchamp Tower in the Tower of London
|Answer to Quiz #338
January 15, 2012
|1. Who is referred to?
2. Who probably carved it?
3. Where can it be found?
|Congratulations to Our Winners!
Robert W. Steinmann Jr. Arthur Hartwell
Nelsen Spickard Barbara Mroz
Stephanie Shaw Karen Petrus
Debby Was Steve Jolley
Cate Bloomquist Peter Norton
Jim Kiser Gary Sterne
Shirley Hamblin Jim Baker
Margaret Paxton Angel Esparza
Marilyn Hamill Diane Burkett
Donna Jolley Alex Sissoev
Judy Bradley Daniel E. Jolley
Shirley Hamblin Elaine C. Hebert
|Comments from Our Readers
Politics was a lot more difficult back then than at present in America. Unfortunately,
there are a lot of countries where it hasn't changed much. Arthur Hartwell
Such a sad story! (But then, much of history is.)
|And This Week's Award for Creativity Goes to...
|Well, well!!! Good one!, I worked on this one all week with nothing
coming to mind & no luck!
I spent way too much time on this thinking that it was Greek or
Roman, but the shield was throwing me off, and the faint circle in the
middle, and the faint 'K' scratched in the middle on left, was
I went through stuff like the fact that the shield had a horizontal
(barwise) lined or striped pattern, known in heraldry as 'barry'.--> No
Help!!!! I went through each individual "Greek" variation: (I)ANE -
Iota Alpha Nu Epsilon, (T)ANE - Tau Alpha Nu Epsilon, (Y)ANE -
Upsilon Alpha Nu Epsilon, (L)ANE - I'm even going out on a limb
with Gamma Alpha Nu Epsilon or maybe even, Gamma Delta Nu
Epsilon--> I even threw a few Sigmas in there, I even flipped it over
and worked it.
Not only no Help, but getting further and further away from "the
truth"!. Then I just entered IANE into the Google Image search and
got a hit on Jane and the Tower of London. Got It!!!!, Good quiz!,
Have a great week!
Robert W. Steinmann Jr.
|Grafitti in the Tower of London
I found my way to this solution through pursuing the crest.
First, its shape(couche) led me to the 12th century. Then,
the design took me to the Barry family coming to England
with the Norman invasion in 1066. But it wasn't until I
learned that different numbers of 'barrys' or horizontal stripes
and certain colors were associated with other families that the
breakthrough came. The number and placement of stripes in
the carving suggest it represents the de Grey family crest.
|John de Grey, 1st Baron
Grey de Rotherfield Arms
This was a fun one - I barked up a lot of wrong trees until hitting upon the
Google book search on "IANE". Cate Bloomquist
Oops. I don't think I submitted my answer to this last Sunday, because i got so
wrapped up in the history. Love it. Peter Norton
I solved it by going to Google translater and putting in IANE and it offered Jane. The
rest was simple as I figured it was a carving in a Cell wall. Jim Kiser
OMG: LANE wall shield carving... IANE wall shield carving... YANE wall shield
carving... TANE wall shield carving... JANE wall shield carving!!! Alex Sissoev
|Jane inscription, Beauchamp Tower
It is unlikely that this inscription
in the Beauchamp Tower was
actually made by the 'nine day
queen' Lady Jane Grey, who was
kept prisoner in another building
on Tower Green before her
execution at the Tower in 1554. It
is more likely that it was carved by
one of her supporters such as her
husband Guildford Dudley or one
of his brothers.
Castiglione, Salt Tower
The E contained in the
heart probably stands for
Elizabeth. Giovanni Battista
Castiglione, Italian tutor to
Princess Elizabeth (later
Queen Elizabeth I), was
imprisoned by Elizabeth's
sister Mary I.
|Giovanni Battista Castiglione
Giovanni Battista Castiglione
was Princess Elizabeth's (later
Queen Elizabeth I) Italian tutor.
He was imprisoned in 1556 by
Elizabeth's sister, Queen Mary
I, for plotting against her. He
was later released.
|James Rogers and Thomas
In January 1540, James
Rogers was charged with
highway robberies and theft
from churches. Thomas
Stevens, who was also
accused of robbing a church,
was probably his accomplice.
Stevens was later released
through lack of proof.
|Thomas Rooper, Beauchamp
Thomas Rooper was
imprisoned in the Tower of
London for a religious
offence in 1570.
|T. Salmon inscription, 1622
This poignant reminder of the
hardship some prisoners
endured was engraved on the
Beauchamp Tower by T.
Salmon in 1622. It reads:
'Close prisoner 32 weeks, 224
days, 5376 hours'.
|John Dudley inscription,
Most of the family of Guildford
Dudley, who was married to
Lady Jane Grey, was
imprisoned at the Tower. This
inscription reads, 'You that
these beasts do well behold and
see, may dem with ease
wherefore here made they be,
with borders eke within [there
may be found] 4 brothers
names who list to search the
|James Typping inscription,
One of the many prisoners whose
religious beliefs were not aligned with
those of the State, James Typping
wrote: 'Typping, stand [or be well
content] and bear they cross, for thou
|art [sweet, good] Catholic but no worse and for that cause, that three year space,
thou hast continued in great disgrace; yet what happ will it? I cannot tell but be
|Kneeling figure, Beauchamp Tower
Much of the graffiti we see today at
the Tower of London was produced
by prisoners who were kept there
during the 16th and 17th centuries.
Some of these inscriptions serve as
poignant reminders of an
individual's unwavering faith.
Others record the long periods of
time they spent waiting to be
released - or executed.
|Astrological inscription by Hugh
This inscription in the Salt Tower
reads 'Hew Draper of Brystow made
this spheere the 30 day of Maye
anno 1561'. Imprisoned for sorcery,
Hew Draper surrounded his
'sphere' with the signs of the zodiac.
inscription of 2 April 1559
records his tremendous
faith. Perhaps looking to
his belief for strength, he
writes 'be wise and
patient in trouble for
wisdom defendeth as well
|Thomas Miagh inscription,
Imprisoned for his alleged links
with Irish rebels, Thomas Miagh
recorded his interrogation and
torture in this inscription of 1581.
In February 1553, Edward VI became ill,
and by June, after several improvements
and relapses, he was in a hopeless
condition. The king's death and the
succession of his Catholic half-sister
Mary would jeopardise the English
Reformation and Edward's Council and
officers had many reasons to fear it.
Edward himself opposed Mary's
succession, not only on religious grounds
but also on those of legitimacy and male
inheritance, which also applied to
Elizabeth. He composed a draft
document, headed "My devise for the
succession", in which he undertook to
change the succession, most probably
inspired by his father Henry VIII's
precedent. He passed over the claims of
his half-sisters and, at last, settled the
Crown on his first cousin once removed,
the 16-year-old Lady Jane Grey, who on
21 May 1553 had married Guildford
Dudley, a younger son of the Duke of
In his document Edward provided, in
case of "lack of issue of my body", for
the succession of male heirs only, that is,
Jane Grey's mother's, Jane's or her
sisters'. As his death approached and
possibly persuaded by Northumberland,
he altered the wording so that Jane and
her sisters themselves should be able to
succeed. Yet Edward conceded Jane's
right only as an exception to male rule,
demanded by reality, an example not to
be followed if Jane or her sisters had only
daughters. In the final document both
Mary and Elizabeth were excluded
because of bastardy; since both had been
declared bastards under Henry VIII and
never made legitimate again, this reason
could be advanced for both sisters. The
provisions to alter the succession directly
contravened Henry VIII's Third
Succession Act of 1543 and have been
described as bizarre and illogical.
In early June, Edward personally
supervised the drafting of a clean version
of his devise by lawyers, to which he lent
his signature "in six several places."
Then, on 15 June he summoned high
ranking judges to his sickbed,
commanding them on their allegiance
"with sharp words and angry
countenance" to prepare his devise as
letters patent and announced that he
would have these passed in parliament.
His next measure was to have leading
councillors and lawyers sign a bond in his
presence, in which they agreed faithfully
to perform Edward's will after his death.
A few months later, Chief Justice
|Edward VI's Devise for the Succession
Edard Montagu recalled that when he and his colleagues had raised legal objections to
the devise, Northumberland had threatened them "trembling for anger, and ... further
said that he would fight in his shirt with any man in that quarrel". Montagu also
overheard a group of lords standing behind him conclude "if they refused to do that,
they were traitors". At last, on 21 June, the devise was signed by over a hundred
notables, including councillors, peers, archbishops, bishops, and sheriffs; many of them
later claimed that they had been bullied into doing so by Northumberland, although in
the words of Edward's biographer Jennifer Loach, "few of them gave any clear
indication of reluctance at the time".
It was now common knowledge that Edward was dying and foreign diplomats
suspected that some scheme to debar Mary was under way. France found the prospect
of the emperor's cousin on the English throne
disagreeable and engaged in secret talks with
Northumberland, indicating support. The diplomats were
certain that the overwhelming majority of the English
people backed Mary, but nevertheless believed that
Queen Jane would be successfully established.
Princess Mary, who had last seen Edward in February,
was kept informed about the state of her brother's health
by Northumberland and through her contacts with the
imperial ambassadors. Charles V advised her to accept
the throne even if it were offered to her on condition she
made no change in religion. Aware of Edward's imminent
death, she left Hunsdon House, near London, and sped to
her estates around Kenninghall in Norfolk, where she
and "innumerable companies of the common people".
On 14 July Northumberland marched out of London
with three thousand men, reaching Cambridge the
next day; meanwhile, Mary rallied her forces at
Framlingham Castle in Suffolk, gathering an army of
nearly twenty thousand by 19 July.
It now dawned on the Privy Council that it had made
a terrible mistake. Led by the Earl of Arundel and the
Earl of Pembroke, on 19 July the Council publicly
proclaimed Mary as queen; Jane's nine-day reign
came to an end. The proclamation triggered wild
rejoicing throughout London. Stranded in Cambridge,
Northumberland proclaimed Mary himself—as he
had been commanded to do by a letter from the
Council. William Paget and the Earl of Arundel rode
to Framlingham to beg Mary's pardon, and Arundel
|Queen Mary I of England
18 Feb 1516 – 17 Nov 1558
arrested Northumberland on 24 July. Northumberland was beheaded on 22 August,
shortly after renouncing Protestantism.
Jane and Lord Guildford Dudley were both charged with high treason, together with
two of Dudley's brothers and the former Archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas Cranmer.
Their trial, by a special commission, took place on 13 November 1553, at the Guildhall
in the City of London. The commission was chaired by Sir Thomas White, Lord Mayor
of London, and Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk. Other members included
Edward Stanley, 3rd Earl of Derby and John Bourchier, 2nd Earl of Bath. As was to be
expected, all defendants were found guilty and sentenced to death. Jane's sentence was
that she "be burned alive on Tower Hill or beheaded as the Queen pleases" (the
traditional English punishment for treason committed by women). However, the
imperial ambassador reported to Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, that her life was to
The Protestant rebellion of Thomas Wyatt the younger in late January 1554 sealed
Jane's fate, although she had nothing to do with it directly. Wyatt's rebellion started as a
popular revolt, precipitated by planned marriage of Mary to the future Philip II of Spain.
Jane's father (the Duke of Suffolk) and other nobles joined the rebellion. Charles V and
his ambassadors pressed Mary to execute Jane to put an end to any future focus for
unrest. Five days after Wyatt's arrest, Jane and Guilford were executed.
On the morning of 12 February 1554, the authorities took Guilford from his rooms at
the Tower of London to the public execution place at Tower Hill and there had him
beheaded. A horse and cart brought his remains back to the Tower of London, past the
rooms where Jane remained as a prisoner. Jane was then taken out to Tower Green,
inside the Tower of London, and beheaded in private. With few exceptions, only royalty
were offered the privilege of a private execution; Jane's execution was conducted in
private on the orders of Queen Mary, as a gesture of respect for her cousin.
According to the account of her execution given in the anonymous Chronicle of Queen
Jane and of Two Years of Queen Mary, which formed the basis for Raphael
Holinshed's depiction, Jane gave a speech upon ascending the scaffold:
Good people, I am come hither to die, and
by a law I am condemned to the same.
The fact, indeed, against the Queen's
highness was unlawful, and the consenting
thereunto by me: but touching the
procurement and desire thereof by me or
on my behalf, I do wash my hands thereof
in innocency, before God, and the face of
you, good Christian people, this day.
She then recited Psalm 51 (Have mercy
upon me, O God) in English, and handed
her gloves and handkerchief to her main.
John Feckenham, a Catholic chaplain sent
by Mary who had failed to convert Jane, stayed with her during the execution. The
executioner asked her forgiveness, and she gave it. She pleaded the axeman, "I pray
you dispatch me quickly." Referring to her head, she asked, "Will you take it off before
I lay me down?" and the axeman answered, "No, madam." She then blindfolded herself.
Jane had resolved to go to her death with dignity, but once blindfolded, failing to find
the block with her hands, began to panic and cried, "What shall I do? Where is it?" An
unknown hand, possibly Sir Thomas Brydges', then helped her find her way and retain
her dignity at the end. With her head on the block, Jane spoke the last words of Jesus
as recounted by Luke: "Lord, into thy hands I commend my spirit!" She was then
Jane and Guilford are buried in the Chapel of St Peter ad Vincula on the north side of
Tower Green. Jane's father, Duke of Suffolk, was executed a week after Jane, on 19
February 1554. Her mother, the Duchess of Suffolk, married her Master of the Horse
and chamberlain, Adrian Stokes in March 1555 (not as often said, three weeks after the
execution of the Duke of Suffolk). She was fully pardoned by Mary and allowed to live
at Court with her two surviving daughters. She died in 1559.
|The Execution of Lady Jane Grey, by
the French painter Paul Delaroche, 1833