Thanks to Dennis Brann!
(No that's not him...nor is he the man
standing next to the poster.
3rd and Markets Sts.
How Arthur Solved the Puzzle
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Quiz #341 Results
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1.  Sixth and Jefferson, Dayton, OH
2.  About March 28, 1913
3. Union Station
Answers to Quiz #341
January 29, 2012
1.  Near what intersection was this taken in what city?
2.  What is the earliest date the photo could have been taken?
3.  What tower is in the background?
Started off searching google images  for "dead horses".. Most were
from SF 1906 earthquake. I thought the wall at the end of the street
looked like a prison. So I tried "prison towers". I got the image with
the location and a handwritten note about 1765 or 1965 (lousy hand
writing) horses turned into fertilizer. [Never able to repeat that find.
Can find through the  browser's history though.]

The picture's home page also mentioned Dayton's March 25, 1913
flood. Searching google's images for "sixth and jefferson" gave an
image, minus the fertilizer writing, that also identified the Union
Station and Walter E Barthelemy auto and bicycle repairing. The
information I found on the flood talked of the flood, not drying out. I
did find the rain stopped March 28. I also found a damage picture of
a wrecked streetcar that had "flood March 25 and 26" written on

Earliest 'date could have been" was after rain had stopped and
evaporated off the street. Hence my answer of March 28 or 29. The
Dayton Metro Library Local History photos on shows the
great distruction and weird object placement of the flood.  I also
discovered that a lot of people were stranded in the Union Station
with out food for two days. Not a good time to be in Dayton, Ohio.

Arthur Hartwell

P.S.  While doing my original searches for the image I had googled
"auto & bicycle repairing", what I thought the building sign said.
Google found nothing. Yesterday, googling from memory I entered
"auto and bicycle repairing" and the image came right up. One had to
search the sign's interpretation rather than the sign. Extra step of
Congratulations to Our Winners!

Margaret Waterman                Margaret Paxton
Angel Esparza                Shirley Hamblin
Gary Sterne                Dennis Brann
Steve Jolley                Donna Jolley
Carol Farrant                Elisa McCauley
Diane Burkett                Perry Lamy
Arthur Hartwell                Nicole Blank
Daniel E. Jolley                Alex Sissoev
Comments from Our Readers
This one was fairly easy to solve.  I noticed that the building nearest the photographer
bore the legend "Barthelemy bicycle repairing".  I entered that into the search field and
up popped the link to this photo on Flickr.                                        
Margaret Paxton

Those 5 horses were only a small sample of the 1400 horses that were killed, not to
mention the 360 peple who were lost.  I think the spot where Walter Barthelemy's Auto
& Bicycle Repair Shop sat is now occupied by a Convention Center.      
 Dennis Brann

I'm going to have to give up on this one.  When you search for 'dead horses' you get
lots of grisly images of dead horses.  (Nope, I never was a rocket scientist.)  Because
the streets are a mess, I searched for early 20th century disasters.  The buildings in the
photo are still standing so I'm dismissing the disasters in San Francisco, Galveston and,
probably, Johnstown.  

The next search was vintage automobiles.  Looking at old cars sure beats looking at
dead horses.  As close as I can get is it is in an English speaking country (I got that part
right!).  I'm guessing it is close to the waterfront and dated around 1910-1913.
Carol Farrant

This was a really fascinating event!  I enjoyed reading about this flood including first
person accounts and I even found an old newsreel.

I must admit that when I first saw the dead horses I immediately thought of Sheboygan
because of your book.  Ha!  I knew the two weren't related though.  It's kind of gross
that people send you other dead horse pictures. Ewww.                  
Shirley Hamblin

I couldn't read Barthelemy...I just Googled "dead horses in street" and several similar
images came up of the Dayton flood.  Since the era and type of buildings seemed right,
I searched Dayton flood archives and eventually found the same picture.
                                                                                               Diane Burkett
This was an interesting quiz as I grew up in Ohio and I'm always interested in history.
 Donna Jolley
Got it - Thank you [for the hint]!  Cannot believe I was stumped on this one.  The ded
horse + bicycle repair did the trick.      
                                                 Nicole Blank
This excerpt from the diary of Margaret Smell is from March of
1913 during her visit to Dayton, Ohio. In the diary she
chronicles her eye witness account of the Dayton Flood and the
aftermath of the flood.

March 20, 1913, Thursday

Harve an myself take our memorable, never to be forgotten trip to
Dayton, Ohio only thinking to spend a pleasant visit with Mable and
Walter when the following Tuesday morning March 25th the terrible
flood came which placed not only ourselves and them but thousands
of others in such a deplorable condition and many, many lost their
lives. The number will no doubt ever be estimated. Oh! the horror of
that awful time will never be obliterated from our minds.

Tuesday morning between 5 and 6 o’clock we were awakened from
our slumbers by the shrieking of whistles, the like of which we never
heard. Before we could dress ourselves and reach the window the
flood of water came rushing down the street. Every moment gaining
power and drawing nearer. We soon escaped to the second story of
Forest Avenue on the Levee
26th March 1913
Wrecked Street Cars
5th & Ludlow Streets
Park Presbyterian Church
Jefferson Street
28th March 1913
Jefferson Street looking West
27th March 1913
Jefferson Street looking West
27th March, 1913
When we escaped we found there were 23 of our party that escaped
to the attic. And now the darkness of night came upon us and the
crucial water drawing nearer and nearer. We sought our hard bunks
being the only thing we could do, as we dare not strike a match or
have a bit of light, except a flashlight, on account of escaping gas and
fear of explosion which really were occurring not far from us. But
alas, we did not seek our bunks expecting to sleep and rest, but rather
to bear the horrible strain of perhaps our fatal doom, as best we
could, and to listen to the heart rending cries for help – help of many
others, near us – but not so fortunate as we were, then we heard
them franticly chopping through the roofs there seeking safety on the
roofs, facing a cold pitiless rain but many houses were swept from
their foundations carrying their human frate with them down through
the cold waters of death without a days warning to meet their God.

Oh! what a sad, sad sight met our eyes on Wednesday morning when
daylight appeared with the mad water almost touching the floor of the
second story of the house we were lodged in, with all kinds of
furniture floating down the street, pianos included. Towards noon
relief parties came by boat to rescue those in perilous positions, and
bringing food to the rest of us we were seeking safety in the attics
by the deep water and what a problem it must of been to immediately
procure cooked food sufficient to feed thousands of people. But
thanks be to God and to the great and noble Mr. Patterson and
numbers of other unselfish blessed ones who so nobly responded to
the aid of the suffering people until outside aid from other cities could
come with their generous donations.

Oh! the loving noble work of people many, many miles away who
had heard of the desperate conditions the people were subjected to in
all the flooded districts. Now we know they worked with might and
main so valiantly to reach us with necessities of life after the terrible
raging waters had subsided so that boats could not float and with the
thousands of horses drowned. We wondered how aid could be
brought but were not long kept in suspense when large express
wagons with large stout horses driven by larger hearted drivers
through the mud and slush they came to our aid with well filled
baskets of ready prepared provisions, good homemade sandwiches,
boiled potatoes and eggs, cookies and apples. Each basket containing
bottles of fresh water which was highly appreciated. Oh! how our
hearts did turn to the bountiful giver of all good, who touched and
tendered the hearts of so many dear people to work so valiantly and
tirelessly to send food and aid to the suffering many.

Friday our little party returned to the second story of the Curtis home
Additional Photographs of the Flood
Dayton Dead Horse picture with address showing.
"Looking west on Sixth from Jefferson"
Walter L. Barthelemy
Auto & Bicycle Repairing
1920 Census
Walter Barthelemy and Family
41 Faulkner Ave., Dayton, OH
Faulker Ave., Dayton, OH
Street has been renumbered - specific location of
Walter L. Barthelemy's house is unknown.  Faulker is only one block long.
Diesel Cab Ride
Approaching Dayton Union Station from the east. Leslie A. Fisher Photo
Dayton Union Station occupied this area
until it was removed. Amtrak served
Dayton with the National Limited, until the
cancellation of the passenger train on
October 1, 1979.
(Left) Map showing location of photographer, former location of Union Station,
and direction of camera west down Sixth; (Right) Google Map view looking west
down Sixth today.
Great Dayton Flood of March 1913
The Great Dayton Flood of 1913 flooded Dayton, Ohio,
and the surrounding area with water from the Great
Miami River, causing the greatest natural disaster in Ohio
history. In response, Ohio passed the Vonderheide Act to
allow the Ohio state government to form the Miami
Conservancy District, one of the first major flood control
districts in Ohio and the United States.

The flood was created by a series of three winter storms
that hit the region in March 1913. Within three days,
8-11 inches of rain fell throughout the Great Miami River
water shed on frozen ground, resulting in more than 90%
run off that caused the river and its tributaries to
overflow. The existing series of levees failed, and
downtown Dayton experienced flooding up to 20 feet
(6.1 m) deep. This flood is still the flood of record for
the Great Miami River watershed, and the amount of
Refugees on a Levee
Life Savers at Rescue Work
Life Line Rescuers
National Theatre
Jewel Theatre
water that passed through the river
channel during this storm equals the
flow over Niagara Falls each month. The
Miami River watershed covers nearly
4,000 square miles (10,000 km2) and
115 miles (185 km) of channel that
feeds into the Ohio River. Other cities
across Ohio experienced flooding from
these storms, but not as extensive as the
cities of Dayton, Piqua, Troy, and
Hamilton along the Great Miami River.


Dayton was founded along the Great
Miami River at the convergence of its
three tributaries, the Stillwater River, the
Mad River, and Wolf Creek. The four
rivers converge within 1 mile (1.6 km)
along the river channel near the city’s
central business district.[3]When Israel
Ludlowlaid out Dayton in 1795, the local
Native Americans warned him about the
recurring flooding. Prior to the 1913
flood, the Dayton area experienced
major floods nearly every decade, with
major water flows in 1805, 1828, 1847,
1866, and 1898.[5]Most of downtown
Dayton lies in the Great Miami River’s
natural flood plain.

Time Line

Friday, March 21, 1913 - The first
storm arrives with strong winds with
temperatures at 60 degrees.

Saturday, March 22, 1913 - The area
experiences a sunny day until the second
storm arrives, dropping temperatures to
the 20s causing the ground to freeze.

Sunday, March 23, 1913 (Easter
Sunday) - The third storm brings rain to
the entire Ohio Rivervalley area. The
saturated and frozen land can’t absorb
any more water, and nearly all of the
rain becomes run off that flows into the
Great Miami River and its tributaries.

March 24, 1913, 7:00 am -After a day
and night of heavy rains with
precipitation between 8-11 inches, the
river reaches its high stage for the year
at 11.6 feet (3.5 m) and continues to rise.

March 25, 1913
Midnight -The Dayton Police are warned
that the Herman Street levee was
weakening and they start the warning
sirens and alarms.

5:30 am -The City Engineer, Gaylord
Cummin, reports that water is at the top
of the levees and is flowing at 100,000
cubic feet per second (2,800 m3/s), an
unprecedented rate.

6:00 am -Water overflowing the levees
begins to appear in the city streets.

8:00 am -The levees on the south side of
the downtown business district fail and
flooding begins downtown. Water levels
continue to rise throughout the day.

March 26, 1913, 1:30 am -The waters
crest, reaching up to 20 feet (6.1 m)
deep in the downtown area. Later that
morning, a gas explosion downtown
near the intersection of 5th Street and
Wilkinson starts a fire that destroys
most of a city block. The open gas lines
were responsible for several fires
throughout the city. The fire department
was unable to reach the fires and many
additional buildings were lost.


- More than 360 people died.

- Nearly 65,000 people were displaced

- Approximately 20,000 homes were

- Buildings were moved off their
foundations, and debris in the moving
water damaged other structures.

- Property damage to homes and
businesses, including factories and
railroads, were over $100,000,000 (in
1913 dollars or over $2,000,000,000 in
today’s dollars).

- Nearly 1,400 horses and 2,000 other
domestic animals died.

The clean up and rebuilding efforts took
approximately one year to repair the
flood damage. The economic impacts of
the flood took most of a decade to
recover. Destruction from the flood is
also responsible for the dearth of old and
historical buildings in the urban core of
Dayton, whose center city resembles
newer cities in the western United States.

Rather than accept defeat from the
flood, the people of the Dayton area
were determined to prevent a future
disaster of this magnitude. Led by
Patterson’s vision for a managed
watershed district, on March 27, 1913,
Governor Cox appointed people to the
Dayton Citizens Relief Commission. In
May, the commission conducted a 10-
day fundraiser which collected over
$2,000,000 (in 1913 dollars) to fund the
flood control effort.[3]They hired
hydrological engineerArthur Morgan[1]
from St. Cloud, Minnesotawho later
worked on flood plain projects in
Pueblo, Coloradoand the Tennessee
Valley Authority, to come up with an
extensive plan to protect Dayton from
future floods.Morgan hired nearly 50
engineers to analyze the Miami Valley
watershed, precipitation patterns, and
determine the flood volume. They
analyzed European flood data for
information about general flooding
patterns. Based on this analysis, Morgan
presented eight different flood control
plans to the City of Dayton officials in
October 1913. In the end, the city
selected a plan based on the flood
control system in the Loire Valleyin
France, consisting of five earthen
damsand modifications to the river
channel through Dayton. The dams
would have conduits to release a limited
amount of water, and a wider river
channel would use larger levees
supported by a series of training levees.
In addition, flood storage areas behind
the dams would be used as farmland
between floods. Morgan’s goal was to
develop a flood plan that would handle
140% of the water from the 1913 flood.
[3]The analysis had determined the river
channel boundaries for the expected
1,000 year major floods, and all business
located in that area would be relocated.

With the support of Governor Cox,
Dayton attorney John McMahon worked
on drafting the Vonderheide Act or the
Ohio Conservancy Law in 1914.The Act
allowed local governments to define
conservancy districts for flood control.
Controversial elements of the Act gave
local governments the right to raise
funds for the civil engineering efforts
through taxes, and granted eminent
domain to support the purchase or
condemnation of the necessary lands for
dams, basins, and flood plains. The Ohio
legislature passed the Act in 1914 and
within days after Governor Cox signed it
into law, the Miami Conservancy
Districtwas created with Morgan
appointed as its first president.

Since its inception, the Miami
Conservancy District has protected the
region from flooding over 1,500 times.
Ongoing expenses for maintaining the
district comes from property tax
assessments collected annually from all
property holders in the district.
Properties closer to the river channel and
the natural flood plain pay more than
properties further away.

Fifth St. West from Main St.
North Main St. from the Court House
South Ludlow St.
W. 2nd St.
Main St. n. of 4th
the house carrying all the available articles,
especially the eatable things we could carry
with us. The dark, mudy water grew
higher and higher as the day advanced. Ere
night came we were privileged to seek
further safety by a temporary bridge from
window to window built of door shutters
to a more substantial house with an attic.
around. As the water had now reached its
highest point in the memorable morning of
March 26th at one o’clock AM and was
now at a standstill. For many hours our
food was handed to us from boats through
the windows of the second stories. Never
shall we forget the brave heroic efforts on
the part of the more fortunate ones to get
food and sustenance to those imprisoned
Looking West at
where we remained until Saturday
morning when we were rescued to
warmth and safety by Mr. Guinn, and
Oh! what a haven of rest. To stand on
firm ground once more, to see the sweet
grass growing, to enjoy the hospitality of
friends, the warmth and comfort of a
beautiful home, to seat ourselves at table
spread with good warm food. Especially
Reassuring Message
the hot fragrant coffee. How our hearts did turn to the giver of all
good that he was pleased to deliver us from a watery grave and from
the awful conflagration of the fire fiend. Oh! the terrible disaster that
we have passed through. May it work in us and others likewise saved
to a good purpose and bring us closer to God.

Sunday, March the 30

We take our departure from that doomed city and start for Muncie.
Travel is both difficult and dangerous on account of the high waters
and washed out bridges so we do not travel direct but go by way of
Richmond over the Pennsylvania road. We are delayed at Richmond
being Sunday the regular trains are not running but the kindness,
friendship and tender sympathy which we found with the good
people of the city of Richmond we shall never forget. We found the
Depo draped in mourning from top to bottom for the poor
unfortunate drowned ones. The ladies told us how earnestly and
faithfully they worked to get us provisions to keep up our strength
and sustain life to the sufferer’s. God will abundantly bless them for
their generosity and kindness of heart, but we firmly trust they may
never be forced to pass through the terrible ordeal as we did the
awful Dayton flood disaster.

Now the good people finding out the stress we were in made up a
special train to convey us to Anderson over the panhandle road.
There we caught the regular evening train to Muncie where we were
received by glad happy hearts and open arms of our dear children.

This is just our own personal experience, briefly told of the Dayton
flood of March 1913. But what of the terrors and suffering of
thousands of others far less fortunate then we were. to say nothing
of the awful terror suffered by those who lost their lives in the flood.

After a week’s recuperation and rest we started out to visit relatives
and friends. By so doing spent a very pleasant time there.

Saturday, April 26 we returned to our Michigan home.
For even more photos of the flood, see
See newsreel of
1913 Great Dayton Flood