Monument to the Scholls
Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich
Undated German stamp
commemorating Sophie Scholl
Hans and Sophie Scholl
Founding Members of Die Weisse Rose
Professor Kurt Huber
October 24, 1893 – July 13, 1943

Wrote the White Rose's sixth and final
leaflet calling for an end to National
Helmuth James
Graf von Moltke
11 Mar 1907 – 23 Jan 1945

By some accounts, he
smuggled the sixth leaflet to
the Allies for dissemination as
12 October 1943. Huber's widow was sent a bill
for 600 marks (twice her husband's monthly
salary) for "wear of the guillotine." Friends and
colleagues of the White Rose, who had helped in
the preparation and distribution of leaflets and in
collecting money for the widow and young
children of Probst, were sentenced to prison terms
ranging from six months to ten years.

After her release for the sentence handed down on
19 April, Traute Lafrenz was rearrested. She spent
the last year of the war in prison. Trials kept being
postponed and moved to different locations
because of Allied air raids. Her trial was finally set
for April 1945, after which she probably would
have been executed. Three days before the trial,
however, the Allies liberated the town where she
was held prisoner, thereby saving her life.

The White Rose had the last word.  Their last
end of July 1942, many of the male medical students at the University of Munich were
obliged to serve a three-month stint on the Russian front as medics. The idea was to
send all medical students to the Russian front for a period of three months in order for
them to experience the rendering of medical care under fire, and to work as physician
assistants in field hospitals.

Several White Rose members were among them, where they witnessed the horrors of
war and the unbelievable cruelty the Germans displayed to the Jews. They personally
observed beatings and other mistreatment and heard reliable stories of the persecution
of the Jews then in full swing. Some witnessed atrocities of the war on the battlefield
and against civilian populations in the East. Willi Graf saw the Warsaw and Łódź
Ghettos and could not get the images of brutality out of his mind.

In November 1942 when the men returned, the White Rose resumed its resistance
activities. In January 1943, using a hand-operated duplicating machine, the group is
thought to have produced between 6,000 and 9,000 copies of their fifth leaflet, "Appeal
to all Germans!", which was distributed via courier runs to many cities (where they
were mailed). Copies appeared in Stuttgart, Cologne, Vienna, Freiburg, Chemnitz,
Hamburg, Innsbruck and Berlin. The fifth leaflet was composed by Hans Scholl with
improvements by Huber. These leaflets warned that Hitler was leading Germany into the
abyss; with the gathering might of the Allies, defeat was now certain. The reader was
urged to "Support the resistance movement!" in the struggle for "freedom of speech,
freedom of religion and protection of the individual citizen from the arbitrary action of
criminal dictator-states". These were the principles that would form "the foundations of
a new Europe".

By February 1943, the young friends sensed the reversal of fortune the Wehrmacht
suffered at Stalingrad, which eventually led to Germany's defeat. As the brutality of the
regime became more and more apparent, when deportations of Jews began, and the
remaining few forced to wear the yellow Star of David, when German atrocities in
occupied Poland and Russia became known, and when the copies of Bishop Galen's
sermon condemning the killing of inmates in insane asylums were circulated in secret,
This spontaneous action was observed by the custodian Jakob Schmid. The police
were called and Hans and Sophie Scholl were taken into Gestapo custody. Sophie and
Hans were interrogated by Gestapo interrogator Robert Mohr, who initially thought
Sophie was innocent. However, after Hans confessed, Sophie assumed full
responsibility in an attempt to protect other members of the White Rose. Despite this,
the other active members were soon arrested, and the group and everyone associated
with them were brought in for interrogation.

The Scholls and Probst were the first to stand trial before the Volksgericht—the
German resistance group were arrested by the Gestapo and beheaded in 1943. The text
of their sixth leaflet was smuggled by Helmuth James Graf von Moltke out of Germany
through Scandinavia to the United Kingdom, and in July, 1943, copies of it were
dropped over Germany by Allied planes, retitled "The Manifesto of the Students of

Another member, Hans Conrad Leipelt, who helped distribute Leaflet 6 in Hamburg,
was executed on January 29, 1945, for his participation.

Today, the members of the White Rose are honoured in Germany amongst its greatest
heroes, since they opposed the Third Reich in the face of almost certain death.

Students from the University of Munich comprised the core of the White Rose — Hans
Scholl, Sophie Scholl, Alex Schmorell, Willi Graf, Christoph Probst, Traute Lafrenz,
Katharina Schüddekopf, Lieselotte (Lilo) Berndl, Jürgen Wittenstein, Marie-Luise Jahn,
Falk Harnack, Hubert Furtwängler, Wilhelm Geyer, Manfred Eickemeyer, Josef
Söhngen, Heinrich Guter, Heinrich Bollinger, Helmut Bauer, Harald Dorhn, Rudi Alt and
later Wolfgang Jaeger. Most were in their early twenties. A professor of philosophy and
musicology, Kurt Huber, was also associated with their cause. Whilhelm Geyer taught
Alexander Schmorell how to make the tin templates used in the graffiti campaign.
Eugen Grimminger of Stuttgart funded their operations. Grimminger's secretary Tilly
Hahn contributed her own funds to the cause, and acted as go-between for Grimminger
and the group in Munich. She frequently carried supplies such as envelopes, paper, and
an additional duplicating machine from Stuttgart to Munich. In addition, a group of
students in the city of Ulm distributed a number of the group's leaflets. Among this
group were Sophie Scholl's childhood friend Susanne Hirzel and her teenage brother
Hans Hirzel and Franz Josef Müller.

Between June 1942 and February 1943, the group prepared and distributed six leaflets,
in which they called for the active opposition of the German people to Nazi oppression
and tyranny. Huber wrote the final leaflet. A draft of a seventh leaflet, designed by
Christoph Probst, was found in the possession of Hans Scholl at the time of his arrest
by the Gestapo. While Sophie Scholl hid incriminating evidence on her person before
being taken into custody, Hans did not do the same with Probst's leaflet draft or
Grave of Hans Scholl, Sophie Scholl,
and Christoph Probst, in the Perlacher
Friedhof next to the Stadelheim prison
in Munich
To read English translation of the sixth leaflet,
click on thumbnail.
To read the testimony of Jakob Schmied that
led to the arrest of Hans and Sophie Scholl
and Christopher Probst, click on thumbnail.  

Turn to p. 10.
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Quiz #423 Results
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Answers to Quiz #423 - December 15, 2013
1. Where was this photo taken?
2. What group does it represent?
3.  How did the group have the last word against their opponents?
Thanks to Quizmaster Emeritus Mike Dalton for submitting this quiz.
1.  Ludwig Maximilian University in Munich
2.  Die Weisse Rose (The White Rose), a non-violent, intellectual resistance
group in Nazi Germany, consisting of students from the University of Munich
and their philosophy professor
3.  Their sixth and last leaflet was smuggled to the Allies,
who printed millions of copies and air-dropped them over Germany
as propaganda towards the end of WWII
The White Rose
Congratulations to Our Winners!

Cynthia Costigan                Edna Cardinal
Catherine Bence                Jim Kiser
Nelse Spickard                Daniel Jolley
Tom Collins                Janice Sellers
Carol Gene Farrant                Gus Marsh
Sally Garrison                Ida Sanchez
Arthur Hartwell                Sherry Marshall
Judy Pfaff                John Thatcher
Collier Smith                Dennis Brann
Dianne Abbott               Donna Jolley
Terry Hollenstain                Sharon M. Levy
Marcelle Comeau                Joshua Kreitzer
Nancy Nalle-McKenzie                Betty Chambers
Tynan Peterson

Grace Hertz and Mary Turner
Team Fletcher

Robert Edward and Donald McKenna
Quiz Poets Laureate
Comments from Our Readers
This quiz was very easy. All I did was zooming the picture and read the words
"Ein Deutches Flugblatt"; and googled the phrase, that led me to the
wikipedia article about White Rose, which contained all the answers and another
picture of the monument.

Further research and having also read "Sophie Scholl" and opened her bio, led me to a
bigger understanding of the story.

I found the quiz pic here and it seems to be taken by an
American student that spent the Summer of 2011 in Germany.This adventure reminds
me of "Heidenrslein", in which the Rose, despite being taken off the
garden, also has the last word by pricking the boy (I don't agree it was in vain!)
Isa Sanchez
I found this easy to identify because I instantly recognized the photo of Sophie
Scholl--I have a copy of her and her brother Hans Scholl's letters and diaries in my
library as well as a volume of the White Rose leaflets. The photo is indelible in my
memory because I discovered the White Rose in the 1980s and the picture of her
always looked like a European pop or punk band photo taken in the 1980s--think The
Smiths, Cocteau Twins, Eyeless In Gaza--that sort of thing. Go ahead and laugh--it's
how my brain works.
Tynan Peterson
This one I know. Remember I am related to Dieterick Bohnoeffer. Dietrich visited my
great aunt and uncle, Irma (Tafel) and Harold Boericke in their home on Philadelphia's
Main Line several times. Their daughter Betty was my mother's best friend and first
cousin. She was there during several visits.

Irma has donated several private, personal letters from him to museums. They also
helped support his parents and a sister living in Berlin during the later part of the war.

I have never understood why he went back to Germany knowing they would kill him.
He was engaged to a nice young woman. Very strange.

The Boericke's lived across the street from Albert Barnes, Barnes Museum of Modern
Art. Hal would walk to the train "Paoli Local' at Merion, PA with Albert. The rest of
the neighbors shunned him because he was Jewish.

The Boerickes, like the Tafels, were Swedenborgian and Dietrich was interested in
their religious views.
Sherry Shaller Marshall
The ultimate last word is that they were heroes and are remembered as such.  Thank
you, once again, for this learning experience.
Carol Gene Farrant
I think that is part of being a young activist, I also think that they would have been
caught at some point, it was unavoidable and they knew it, but they wouldn't stop,
since resistance from young students is a fundamental part of every autoritarian
Ida Sanchez-Tello
Another moving learning experience.  I would hope I have the courage to make a
stand in the face of death.  And another place to go see on my bucket list!  
Nancy Nalle-McKenzie
Today the members of the White Rose are honored as heroes in Gemany as well they
should be.  I stood up for what I thought was right back in my college days and a
few years afterward, but never at peril to my own life.  These were indeed brave
Dennis Brann
I googled the names on the 2 photos (Hans and Sophie Scholl) which led me to the
White Rose group. Also, the googling "Munich
student manifesto" (the English translation of a phrase on one page in the photo) leads
to the same info.
Collier Smith
Googling ein deutsches flugeblatt gave me quite a story in wikipedia.
Arthur Hartwell
At first, it seemed that Goolge Translate was going to help me because initially, I
could not figure out what in the world a "a German plane sheet" was. Turns out
flugblatt means a flier or leaflet. Realizing that was not going to help nearly as much
as I'd hoped, I sat staring at the pictures of the people. Then I noticed, clear as day,
the name Sophie Scholl under one of the photos. From there a quick Google search
directed me to information about her and White Rose. Sophie was a fearless young
woman. It is wonderful to see that she and her fellow compatriots are still highly
regarded by most Germans, in particularly the youth.
Sally Garrison
The first step I took was to search for the headline "eine deuches flugblatt" from the
photo clue. It led to the website "" written in German.  I translated the text
thru google.  I the went to Wikipedia for information on the "White Rose Group".
Tom Collins
The leaflets totaled 6 in all and are below:
Jim Kiser
War-Time Recollections of Robert Edward McKenna
Quiz Poet Laureate
Thank you for your note concerning the "White Rose" . I had some
personal knowledge of then situation.  As I had been there at the time......  
In the early 1940's  I received a personal invitation from the United States
Government  to join the War in Europe.  Being free at the time, I  decided
to accept the call.

I was assigned as a Scout to the 13tn Armored Division Reconnaissance,
whose overall responsibility  was to "Clean Out the Bad Guys"  who still
remained of  Hitlers' Grand Army.  We were to travel down the Ruhr
River (Transportation supplied) from the North  until the area was purified.

I was at the time between 18 and 19 years old.  I had never traveled more
than 50 miles from home before. Home was Fairfield , Connectici\ut.  
Quite an experience, Eh what?

The only personal confrontation that could have exploded, was
experienced was with an elderly woman.  She came out of her house very
concerned.  With all of the noise and confusion that was going on all
around, she was  actually quite brave to ask me what I was doing there in
her back yard..  (She spoke English.)

I attempted to explain to her that Hitler had lost the war. She could not
believe that her country had lost the war.  I told her that her life was in
danger if she did not return to her home.  She did go peaceably.

I don't mean light of the circumstances of the War.  Millions of people
lost their lives!!    But I just happened to be there!!!!!

Robert Edward McKenna
Quiz Poet Laureate
Dissemination of the Sixth Leaflet
"A German Leaflet"
by the Allies, 1943
First Dissemination
by Air
Last Dissemination
by Air
Total No. Dropped
by Aircraft
03/04 July 1943
27/28 July 1943
First Dissemination
by Balloon
Last Dissemination
by Balloon
Total No. Dropped
by Balloon
10/11 July 1943
12/13 July 1943
First Dissemination
by Artillery
Last Dissemination
by Artillery
Total No. Dropped
by A
Not Disseminated
Not Disseminated
The White Rose (German: die Weiße
Rose) was a non-violent, intellectual
resistance group in Nazi Germany,
consisting of students from the University
of Munich and their philosophy professor.
The group became known for an
anonymous leaflet and graffiti campaign,
lasting from June 1942 until February
1943, that called for active opposition to
dictator Adolph Hitler's regime.

The six most recognized members of the
Hans Scholl, Sophie Scholl, and
Christopher Probst, 1942
On Feb. 5, 2012, Alexander
Schmorell was canonized as a
New Martyr by the Orthodox
detachment gave way to the
conviction something had to be
done. It was not enough to
keep to oneself, one's beliefs,
and ethical standards, but the
time had come to act.

Quoting extensively from the
Bible, Aristotle and Novalis, as
well as Goethe and Schiller,
they appealed to what they
considered the German
intelligentsia, believing that they
would be intrinsically opposed
to Nazism. These leaflets were
left in telephone books in public
phone booths, mailed to
professors and students, and
taken by courier to other
People's Court that tried political
offenses against the Nazi German
state—on 22 February 1943. They
were found guilty of treason and
Roland Freisler, head judge of the
court, sentenced them to death. The
three were executed the same day by
guillotine at Stadelheim Prison. All
three were noted for the courage
with which they faced their deaths,
particularly Sophie, who remained
firm despite intense interrogation.
(Reports that she arrived at the trial
with a broken leg from torture were
false.) She said to Freisler during the
trial, "You know as well as we do
that the war is lost. Why are you so
cowardly that you won't admit it?"
a sentence of ten years in a penitentiary.

The third White Rose trial was to have taken place on 20 April 1943 (Hitler's birthday),
because Freisler anticipated death sentences for Wilhelm Geyer, Harald Dohrn, Josef
Söhngen and Manfred Eickemeyer. He did not want too many death sentences at a
single trial, and had scheduled those four for the next day. However, the evidence
against them was lost, and the trial was postponed until 13 July 1943.

At that trial, Gisela Schertling – who had betrayed most of the friends, even fringe
members like Gerhard Feuerle – redeemed herself by recanting her testimony against all
of them. Since Freisler did not preside over the third trial, the judge acquitted all but
Söhngen (who got only six months in prison) for lack of evidence.

Alexander Schmorell and Kurt Huber were beheaded on 13 July 1943, and Willi Graf on
cigarette coupons given
to him by Geyer, an act
that cost Probst his life
and nearly undid Geyer.
Hans did try to destroy
the draft of the last
leaflet by ripping it into
pieces and stuffing into
his mouth to try save
Probst from detection
but the Gestapo
recovered enough to
match with written,
signed statements from
Probst found later in
Han's apartment.

The group was
motivated by ethical
and moral
considerations. At the
universities for distribution. At first, the leaflets were sent out in mailings from cities in
Bavaria and Austria, since the members believed that southern Germany would be more
receptive to their anti-militarist message.

The leaflets caused a sensation, and the Gestapo began an intensive search for the
publishers. On the nights of the 3rd, 8th and 15th of February 1943, the slogans
"Freedom" and "Down with Hitler" appeared on the walls of the university and other
buildings in Munich. Alexander Schmorell, Hans Scholl and Willi Graf had painted them
with tar-based paint. (Similar graffiti that appeared in the surrounding area at this time
was painted by imitators).

The shattering German defeat at Stalingrad at the beginning of February provided the
occasion for the group's sixth leaflet, written by Huber. Headed "Fellow students!" (the
now-iconic Kommilitoninnen! Kommilitonen!), it announced that the "day of reckoning"
had come for "the most contemptible tyrant our people has ever endured." "The dead of
Stalingrad adjure us!"

On 18 February 1943, coincidentally the same day that Nazi propaganda minister
Joseph Goebbels called on the German people to embrace total war in his Sportpalast
speech, the Scholls brought a suitcase full of leaflets to the university. They hurriedly
dropped stacks of copies in the empty corridors for students to find when they flooded
out of lecture rooms. Leaving before the class break, the Scholls noticed that some
copies remained in the suitcase and decided it would be a pity not to distribute them.
They returned to the atrium and climbed the staircase to the top floor, and Sophie flung
the last remaining leaflets into the air.
When Hans was executed, he said "Let freedom live" as the blade fell.

The second White Rose trial took place on 19 April 1943. Only eleven had been indicted
before this trial. At the last minute, the prosecutor added Traute Lafrenz (who was
considered so dangerous that she was to have had a trial all to herself), Gisela
Schertling and Katharina Schüddekopf. Others tried were Hans Hirzel, Susanne Hirzel,
Franz Josef Müller, Heinrich Guter, Eugen Grimminger, Heinrich Bollinger, Helmut
Bauer and Falk Harnack. None had an attorney. One was assigned after the women
appeared in court with their friends. Prior to their deaths, several members of the White
Rose believed that their execution would stir university students and other anti-war
citizens into activism against Hitler and the war.

Professor Huber had counted on the good services of his friend, attorney Justizrat
Roder, a high-ranking Nazi. Roder had not bothered to visit Huber before the trial and
had not read Huber's leaflet. Another attorney had carried out all the pre-trial
paperwork. When Roder realized how damning the evidence was against Huber, he
resigned. The junior attorney took over.

Grimminger initially was to receive the death sentence for funding their operations. His
attorney successfully played upon the female wiles of Tilly Hahn to convince Freisler
that Grimminger had not known what the money was really being used for.Grimminger
therefore escaped with
leaflet was smuggled to the Allies, who edited it and air-dropped millions of copies over
Germany. The members of the White Rose, especially Sophie, became icons of the new
post-war Germany.
Willi Graf
2 January 1918  – 12 October 1943
A recruiter in other German cities
1961 East German stamp commemorating
Sophie and Hans Scholl

In nationwide (German) poll, Sophie and
her brother Hans were voted the fourth
most important Germans of all time, above
Bach, Goethe and Einstein
Sophie reading
Photos of Sophie Scholl
\Scholl Siblings
from left:
Sophie, Inge,
Hans, Werner,  
Sophie Scholl, Girl's Lutheran School,
class of 1936, Ludwigsburg.  Sophie is
circled in white.
Sophie in Ulm
c 1931
Sophie as a young girl,
Sophie with other White Rose
members, 1942
Hans Scholl, Sophie Scholl, Christoph Probst
Founding members of the White Rose
Founding members of the White Rose:  Sophie Scholl, Hans Scholl, Christopher
Probst, Alexander Schmorell, Professor Kurt Huber, Willi Graf