In 1170, a Parliament was held in the fortress under Henry II, in which William the
Lion, King of Scotland, and his brother David attended as feudal barons of the realm.

Henry III, further strengthened the defences with the construction of the western
curtain wall, much of which survives today. He also repaired damage that had occurred
to the castle during the reign of his predecessor King John. Henry III died in 1272, and
there seems to have been little further building carried out at the castle until the reign of
King Edward III (1327–1377). Edward III was born in the castle on 13 November
1312, hence called Edward of Windsor.

1350, Edward III initiated a 24-year rebuilding program by demolishing the existing
castle, with the exception of the Curfew Tower ("T") and some other minor outworks.
Henry II's keep (the Round Tower) was replaced by the present keep, although it was
not raised to its present height until the 19th century. These vast works were
superintended by the celebrated William of Wykeham, afterwards Bishop of
Winchester, and the munificent founder of New College, Oxford, who was appointed
keeper of the Manors of Old and New Windsor in 1359.

Plan of Windsor Castle. A: The Round Tower, B: The Upper
Ward, The Quadrangle (as this courtyard is known), C: The
State Apartments, D: Private Apartments, overlooking the East
terrace, E: South Wing, overlooking The Long Walk, F: Lower
Ward, G: St George's Chapel, H: Horseshoe Cloister, K: King
Henry VIII Gate (principal entrance), L: The Long Walk, M:
Norman Gate, N: North Terrace, O: Edward III Tower, T: The
Curfew Tower
Edinburgh, it is one of the three principal official residences of the British monarch.
Queen Elizabeth II spends many weekends in the year at the castle, using it for both
state and private entertaining. Her other two residences, Sandringham House and
Balmoral Castle, are the Royal Family's private homes.

Most of the Kings and Queens of England, later Kings and Queens of the United
Kingdom, have had a direct influence on the construction and evolution of the castle,
which has been their garrison fortress, home, official palace, and sometimes their
prison. Chronologically the history of the castle can be traced through the reigns of the
monarchs who have occupied it. When the country has been at peace, the castle has
been expanded by the addition of large and grand apartments; but when the country has
been at war, the castle has been more heavily fortified. This pattern continues to the
present day.

Windsor Castle was originally a fortress of the Roman invaders, and probably built on
an earlier structure. The Castle was originally built by William the Conqueror, who
reigned from 1066 until his death in 1087. His original wooden castle stood on the site
of the present Round Tower ("A"). The castle formed part of his defensive ring of
castles surrounding London, the site chosen in part because of its easily defensible
position. It was defended by a wooden palisade rather than the thick stone walls seen

The Conqueror's youngest son King Henry I was the first sovereign to live within the

Concerned for his own safety due to the instabilities of his reign, he took up residence
there and celebrated Whitsuntide at the castle in 1110. His marriage to Adela, the
daughter of Godfrey of Louvain, took place in the castle in 1121.
Windsor Castle, in Windsor in the English
county of Berkshire, is the largest
inhabited castle in the world and, dating
back to the time of William the
Conqueror, is the oldest in continuous
occupation. The castle's floor area is
about 45,000 square metres (480,000 sq

Together with Buckingham Palace in
London and Holyrood Palace in
used for this purpose during the building of St George’s Chapel.

The dungeon, in the early English Gothic style, was a storeroom for weapons. During
the English Civil War (1642-1649) it was almost certainly a dungeon, as the walls are
13 feet thick in places.Originally the ground floor of the Tower served as the Guard's
living and working area. Just inside the main entrance to the Tower is a trap door that
opens into a passage built through the castle wall leading to the base of the hill. This
passage enabled defenders to "sally out" at besiegers through a gate known as the

The clock, at the top of the Tower, was made by John Davis from 1660-1689 and still
contains the original bushes, bearings and counterweight system. Until Cromwell's time
the Clock Tower had no floor so the guards had to perch on ledges during their watch.

I thought at first it might be another Edinburgh connection, but something told me it
was the Thames. I love it.                                               
Peter Norton aka Grandpa

Great Quiz and History lesson. The Quiz Kids did some outstanding research on this-
reason we took so long answering.                                 
Mr. Rick and the Quiz Kids

Our early family photo's and my earliest photos were taken with a box "brownie"
camera. In the late 40s we found a box camera that had been hiding in a closet for 10
years. Most of the pictures were taken. We had it developed, and all the pictures came
out. We were surprised.                                                                
Arthur Hartwell

N.B.  That's great info about the Brownie, Arthur, but how do you explain the fact
the latest date is 1863?  - Q. Gen.

In 1963 the roof line of the Curfew Tower was changed to a pepper-pot. There are one
and maybe four top hats in the picture. Wikipedia says they were started in England in
1793. In 20 years everyone was wearing them. The top hats say the picture taken some
time after 1813. Earliest photo with people, see below, 1842. That gives us a space of
about 20 years between 1842 and 1863. The foreground people definitely would have to
pose. Those in the background are far enough away that some movement would not be
noticed. They are probably interested in what is going on and may not realize they are in
the picture.

The advantage Kodak had in 1900 was that the film was fast enough that a 1/50 second
shutter speed would suffice. No long poses, but one would have to stand some what

I realize there were early outdoor pictures. I always heard that the reason one sees no
people in the pictures of early western towns, was the exposure was so long that
people walking would not show.                                                     
Arthur Hartwell

N.B.  Bravo!  Much better.

This quiz was great fun to do. I felt like I was using the skills described in the Dead
Horse Investigation book which originally got me interested in doing the photo quizzes.

[1863] would have been the latest date that the photo could have been taken. I read that
the photo “is a Victorian era projector slide mounted on card.” Another description
indicated that this is a reproduced print and as a result some details are not as clear as
they would have been on “the original glass plate” negative.

I read that Frederick Scott Archer first used a glass plate negative in 1851 from which
multiple copies could be made. He actually invented the new process in 1848 and
published it in 'The Chemist' in March 1851. It was then available for other
photographers to use, especially because Archer did not establish a patent. I suppose
Archer himself could have taken the photo in about 1848 as an experiment but it is
more likely the earliest date would be March 1851.                                   
Don Draper

I think I just got lucky by finding the other dated pics of the castle and comparing the
tree lines to the photo on the quiz.  Didn't even think to check architecture lol - I guess
that would have made more sense.  Great quiz though - I actually had no idea it was
Windsor Castle and spent quite some time on Google looking at castles, fortresses and
the like and finally found one that matched.   My first guess was that it was a very old
photo of the Cathedral of Notre Dame (I studied French for years) but I was way off.   
Nicole Blank

Okay I peeked at Tineye to get to website that had the photo: Windsor Castle where
King George VI was buried in 1952.  I surmised that qm general might put up
something in relation to British Royalty, with the recently announced engagement of
Prince William.

N.B.  The quiz was prompted by my recent trip to the UK, and even more so that I
was desperate for a quiz photo at 3 am and this one just caught my attention.

You know I asked the Royal family to announce Prince William's engagement while
I was in England, but they insisted holding off until I was back in the Colonies and
was unable to attend the Press Conference. Just for that, I won't attend the wedding
either. So there. - Q. Gen.
Windsor Castle 1890-1900

Great Photo Analysis by Quizmaster Nicole Blank

The Earliest Outdoor Photographs
A Remark by the Quizmaster General
If you have a picture you'd like us to feature a picture in a future quiz, please
email it to us at If we use it, you will receive a free analysis of
your picture. You will also receive a free
Forensic Genealogy CD or a 10%
discount towards the purchase of the
Forensic Genealogy book.
Curfew Tower is the largest and most imposing of the three
towers on the west face of Windsor Castle. Curfew Tower is at
the opposite end of the curtain wall from Salisbury Tower and
near Marbeck's. Curfew Tower's strategic location, overlooking
the River Thames and Eton, led to the casting of a special
cannon, made in 1544, that is still trained on the bridge over the
river. Built by the House of Plantagenet during the reign of Henry
III, the tower was begun in 1227 and completed in 1230 with
walls 14 feet thick in places. The gabled roof was added in 1863
and was inspired by La Tour du Tresau in Carcassonne,
southwest France. The medieval timber framing of the belfry
remains intact, although now completely hidden behind the 19th
century alterations. For several centuries it was known as the
Clewer Tower. Later it was known as the Bell Tower as it was
If you enjoy our quizzes, don't forget to order our books!
Quiz #282 Results
Answer to Quiz #282
December 4, 2010
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1. I meant to ask the latest date.  

But the earliest date is 1851 when the process of making glass plate photographs
was published by Frederick Scott Archer.  Until then, photos were one of a kind,
but Archer's invention allow the production of as many copies as desired.
The quiz photo is such a copy.   The latest date is 1863 when the Curfew Tower
was rebuilt with its current sloped roof.

2.  South East

3.  Many members of English royal families including

Henry VIII, Queen Victoria, Prince Albert, Princess Margaret

1.  What is the earliest date this photo could have been taken and why?
2.  About what direction is the camera pointing in?
3.  Name someone who is buried here.
See Results of
Our Eighth Occasional PhotoQuiz Survey

TinEye spoiler alert.  You can find this photograph on Tineye.  
However, it will be a lot more fun if you sole the puzzle on your own.
Congratulations to Our Winners!

Mr Rick and the Quiz Kids ace another one!  The rest is history...

Joyce Veness                Arthur Hartwell
Don Draper                Nicole Blank
Stan Read                Kevin Beeson
Jim Kiser                Dennis Brann
Alex Sissoev                Mike Dalton
Alan Cullinan                Gary Sterne
Richard Wakeham              Wendy Plew      
     Diane Burkett        Peter Norton (aka Grandpa)      
Karen Kay Bunting                Marilyn Hamill
Comments from Our Readers
Outdoor pictures were taken as early as the 1840s. The earliest
outdoor photo with people in it was in 1842, produced by Fox Talbot
in England using the Petzval lens.

Remember back in 5th grade you learned about Isaac Newton and
how his glass prism broke up sunlight into the colors of the
rainbow?  Well early glass lenses had the same problem. The light
passing through the lens would be broken up into the colors of the
rainbow, so that each wavelength focused in a slightly different
place.  You couldn't use very early lenses to take really sharp pictures
in sunlight without stopping down the lens - eliminating this problem -
known as chromatic dispersion.

If you had a still scene, you could stop the lens down, increasing
your exposure time, no prob.  But if you wanted to take a picture of
people sitting in sunlight, it could get uncomfortably hot.  

The Petzval lens was a four component compound lens.  It worked
kind of like - two of the lenses added chromatic dispersion and the
other two subtracted it so that at the end all the colors focused at the
same place and you could get a sharp image.

The Petzval lens was the first lens whose contour was actually
calculated and produced according to the calculation.  Before that,
lenses had been made by trial and error.

Fox Talbot used this lens to take the first outdoor picture of people in
1841.  Actually, there were earlier photos that accidentally captured a
person or two.  See the 1838 Daguerreotype of Le Boulevard du
Temple, Paris, below.

The man on the corner is having his shoes shined, and he stood still
long enough to get himself photographed (not that he knew what that

So actually the quiz photo was taken loooonnnnnggggg before the
Brownie was a twinkle in George Eastman's eye.  In fact, it was
taken latest in 1863 when he was nine years old.

Colleen Fitzpatrick, PhD
Quizmaster General
The panorama above shows very clearly how Windsor Castle dominates the town of Windsor. The
photos were taken in the mid 1990s from a roof top vantage point to the south of the town at Edward
VII Hospital. From left to right, after the modern office blocks in William Street, The Curfew Tower
rises up with St George's Chapel slightly higher. (The Lower Ward). The Round Tower (The Keep)
dominates the centre of the castle, with the State Apartments to the right (east). The Parish Church is
visible below the Round Tower. Photo by Stan Mew
Plans of Windsor Castle in 1743
Windsor Castle 1907
North side of the Curfew Tower
I found similar photos here: and
here: so I am guessing the date
must be less than 1890 since the photo with the larger trees was listed as being taken
between 1890-1900 and the trees here are nowhere near that large and the ivy does not
appear to be creeping up the Round Tower in this picture.  Queen Elizabeth, the Queen
Mother, was buried at the castle's chapel in 2002.  I would say the latest this picture
could have been taken would be 1870, because of the tree line.

Nicole Blank
Curfew Tower
Quiz Photo
Windsor Castle
The earliest surviving buildings at Windsor
date from the reign of Henry II who came
to the throne in 1154. He replaced the
wooden palisade surrounding the old
fortress with a stone wall interspersed with
square towers; a much-altered part of this
defensive wall can be seen on what is
today the east terrace. Henry II also built
the first stone keep on the irregular mound
at the centre of the castle.
from London to be executed. Elizabeth I attempted to avoid the spread of the disease
through prohibiting foreign imports and cutting down on public gatherings.

During the civil wars in the reign of Charles I, Windsor Castle was garrisoned by the
rebel troops. It was unsuccessfully attacked by Prince Rupert in the autumn of 1642;
and in 1648 it became the prison of the unfortunate monarch.

Charles II repaired and richly furnished it, but after his death in 1685, the Castle fell
slowly into a state of neglect. It was not until King George III, the father of 15
children, needed a larger residence than could be found elsewhere– that the castle was
once again fully inhabited.

In the year 1824 during the reign of George IV, the sum of £300,000 was voted by the
nation for the general improvement of the Castle, and subsequent grants have raised the
amount appropriated for the buildings alone to nearly £800,000.

It has in modern times been the favourite residence of King George III, King George
IV, who greatly enriched it, William IV, and Queen Victoria. During the First World
War, when the members of the Royal Family felt the need to change its dynastic name
from the German "House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha", they took their new name from
the castle, becoming the "House of Windsor".

The Chapel of St. George was given its present form by Edward IV, and was
completed by King Henry VII. It is within it that the Knights of the Garter are installed,
and the long lines of their banners that float from under its roof, are in themselves a
history which connects it more or less nearly with almost the whole of the nobility and
gentry of the country–a commingling of ranks, from the scions of Royalty down to the
Commons of the land, which has had vast influence in making England the mighty
country that it is.
On the Winchester Tower there is still to be seen a stone on which are cut the words
‘‘Hoc fecit Wykeham.” The king on seeing the words ‘‘was exceedingly wroth against
Wykeham, and but for his dexterity the affair would have gone seriously with the
architect. Being summoned into the king’s presence, the king demanded his explanation,
when Wykeham told the king he read the inscription wrongly; it was not that
‘Wykeham made the tower, but that the tower made Wykeham,’ whereat the king’s
wroth was appeased.”

The oldest existing parts of the castle include the curfew tower ("T"), constructed in
1227. The interior of the tower contains the former castle prison, and also the remnants
of a "Sally port", a secret exit for the occupants in a time of siege. The upper storey
contains the castle bells placed there in 1478, and the castle clock of 1689. The French-
style conical roof is, however, a 19th-century addition.

In this reign King John of France and King David of Scotland were both prisoners
together in the Castle.

Henry VIII (who reigned from 1509–
1547) rebuilt the principal castle gateway
in about 1510, siting it in such a place
that, should the gateway fall in an attack,
further invasion into the castle would
involve an uphill battle. The coat of arms
above the arch and portcullis bears the
pomegranate badge of the king's first
queen, Catherine of Aragon.

At the outbreak of Bubonic plague in
London, Elizabeth I and her court left for
Windsor Castle in 1563. There she had a
gallows erected, ordering anyone visiting
17th Century Etching of Windson
Castle by Wenseslas Hollar
Frederick Scott Archer
Frederick Scott Archer (1813–1857) invented the photographic collodion process
which preceded the modern gelatin emulsion. This made it possible to produce
photographic images on glass which could be used as a negative to print multiple copies
of the image.  Before this, every photograph was a one-of-a kind.  He was born in
Bishop's Stortford in the UK and is remembered mainly for this single achievement
which greatly increased the accessibility of photography for the general public.

Scott Archer was the son of a butcher who went to London to take an apprenticeship
as a silversmith. Later, he became a sculptor and found calotype photography useful as
a way of capturing images of his subjects. Dissatisfied with the poor definition and
contrast of the calotype and the long exposures needed, Scott Archer invented the new
process in 1848 and published it in 'The Chemist' in March 1851, enabling
photographers to combine the fine detail of the daguerreotype with the ability to print
multiple paper copies like the calotype.

He later developed the ambrotype jointly with Peter Fry.

He died impoverished, as he did not patent the collodion process and made very little
money from it. An obituary described him as "a very inconspicuous gentleman, in poor

His family received a gift of £747 after his death, raised by public subscription, and a
small pension was also provided to support his three children after the death of their

The Royal Photographic Society has a small collection of Scott Archer's photographs.

Archer is buried at Kensal Green Cemetery London W10 4RA